The Russian Civil War

Reasons why the bolsheviks won the civl war in Russia

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Geographical Factors


  • Held central area of Russia
  • This contained all of the main industrial areas- produce war supplies
  • Control of the Trans- Siberia railway line connecting Petrograd and Moscow to the rest of the country


  • Scattered around central area with 1000's miles separating them
  • Communications were difficult
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  • To STAY IN POWER- build a new socialist society


Within they all had different aims=

  • Wanted the Tsar back
  • Wanted a Military Dictator
  • Constitutional Government

They all agreed that they wanted to defeat the Bolsheviks

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  • Trotsky- Very Courageous
  • Built up the Red Army- Using experienced former Tsarist officers
  • Had a special train which took him and the army to the areas with the worst fighting
  • Increased morale when people saw his train arrive
  • Within the army there were strict rules on deserting


  • Lacked Good Leaders
  • Generals did not trust each other
  • Did not co-ordinate attacks
  • Had problems inside their army
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Foreign Intervention


  • Support from Britain, France, Japan and USA
  • These sent forces to help them
  • HOWEVER- these troops did not fight and were sympathetic to the Bolsheviks

This helped the REDS gain support as:

  • Showed reds as defending Russia
  • Showed the whites being controlled by foreign powers
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Peasant Support


  • Told Peasants they could keep land
  • They nailed epaulets to white soliders while they were still alive.


  • They restored land to the landowners
  • Lost peasant support
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