The rise of the Nazi party and its consolidation of power

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  • Created by: chloe
  • Created on: 21-03-14 18:37

impact of Weimar period

A coalition government - weak as compromises have to be made - nobody could get the majority as they used proportional representation

People hated the Treaty of Versailles - had to pay £6,600 million reparations, had to accept war guilt. Government known as Novemer Criminals because they signed it when the military could have gone on fighting - stab in the back

Rioting in Berlin - communists. Had to form repubic in Weimar instead

The president could use Article 48 to pass laws without the Reichstag

Germany couldn't afford to pay second installment of reparation so France invaded the Ruhr. Workers went on strike. Items were in demand and price increased. Nobody could afford anything so government printed more money. This led to hyperinflation.

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Munich Putsch

8th November 1923 - Hitler felt strong enough to attempt an uprising

It didn't work - Hitler was arrested and trialled for treason.

Hitler made speeches at the trial and the people liked what he was saying - should have been executed but only sentenced to 5 years - was released after 9 months

Whilst in prison Hitler wrote Mein Kampf -main ideas - Volksgemeinschaft – the creation of a people’s community, Treaty of Versailles – abolition of the hated treaty and reversed terms, Social Darwinism – The German Aryan race is superior / Jews are inferior, Anti- Semitism, Anti- communist, Lebenstraum – obtain living space, expand to the East as he believed they were inferior

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1923-1929 Stresseman

Whilst Hitler had been in prison, Stresseman had come into power

He had improved the economic situation so Hitler wasn't going to get votes

  • He sent the workers of the Ruhr back to work
  • Introduced a new currency - Rentenmark
  • Negociated Dawes plan and Young plan with America
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Hitler and the Nazis 1923-1929

Already renamed it to Nazis, introduced SA - leader Ernst Rohm, mustache, uniform, swastika

Created the SS - personal bodyguards

Created His salute

Practised his speeches

Made speeches at rallies etc.

Propaganda - Josef Goebbels

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impact of the Wall Street Crash

Germany were relying on loans from USA - stopped loans when wall street crash happned - 29th october 1929

Demand for consumer goods fell sharply and German firms were forced to lay off workers

International trade began to contract and German exports fell rapidly

Factories closed and unemployment rose sharply, reaching a peak of 6.2 million in 1932

Many Germans were unable to pay their rents and found themselves homeless

Four out of every ten German workers were without a job

Government weren't doing a lot to solve economic problems - many turned to extremist groups

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Why the Nazis gained support

Hitler was a gifted public speaker

use of propaganda

they had financial support from large businesses that were afraid of communism

many feared communism

Use of the SA - disrupted rivals meetings and protected Nazi speakers

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promises to different sections of society

           To women: To put emphasis on family life and moral values To put emphasis upon children’s welfare           To big Industries To protect against communism To curb the growth of powerful trade unions           To farmers To reverse the decline in agricultural prices                                        To the working class: To tackle unemployment To provide a decent wage             •To protect worker’s rights           To the upper class: To protect against communism To allow them to keep their wealth and status To restore Germany’s status To the middle class: To protects against communism To increase living standards To restore law and order

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political scheming

Bruning was chancellor in 1930, he was relying on Hindenburg and article 48 to pass laws

He was becoming more unpopular

Became known as the hunger chancellor when he cut unemployment benefits

In 1932 Hitler stood for president against Hindenburg. Didn't win but got 13 million votes

The nazis were the biggest party in the Reichstag and Hitler should have been appointed Chancellor

Instead Von papen was elected. He didn't have the majority and had to call an election. Hitler still had the majority and demanded the post of chancellor. This time Hindenburg appointed General Von Schleicher.

Hitler and Von Papen were meeting behind the scene. Hitler could be chancellor and Von Papen would be vice chancellor. He thought he could control him as the Nazis would only have 3 seats in the cabinet and Von Papen would be in charge of the military and the money.

Hitler was appointed chancellor in January 1933.

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Importance of Reichstag fire

An election was called as Hitler didn't have an overall majority.

The Reichstag building was set on fire a week before the election was due to occur.

A dutch communist - Van Der Lubbe was arrested and charged for starting the fire.

Hitler banned communists with the Law for the protection of the people and the state

Hitler still didn't get a majority so couldn't pass laws.

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Enabling Act

The Enabling act would give Hitler the power to pass any law he wanted for four years. So in reality he could now do what he wanted.

To get this act passed he surrounded the building with SA, they bullied people into voting in favour

anyone that didn't turn up or turned up late was counted as present and in favour of the act

This became the foundation of his Third Reich

Uses of the Enabling act Purge of the civil service – Jews and political opponents of the Nazis removed from their posts in the civil service Trade Unions – All trade unions banned, replaced by DAF. Strikes were made illegal. Ban on Political parties – Nazi party only legal party, Germany now a one-party state. Control of the press – strict control and censorship of the press Control of the states – abolished state assemblies and replaced with Reich governors

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Night of the Long Knives

Hitler saw the SA and their leaders especialaly Ernst Rohm as an increasing threat

Hitler needed to gain the support of the Army

On 30th June 1934, Hitler ordered the SS to kill over 400 'enemies of state'

It eradicated opponents of Hitler's rule

It secured the support of the army

It regulated the army to a minor role

It provided Himmler with the opportunity to expand the SS

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Fuhrer

on 2nd August 1934, president Hindenburg died.

Hitler seized the opportunity to combine chancellor and president and made himself a new title. Fuhrer meaning leader.

Hitler was now absolute dictator of Germany

The officers and men of the army had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler.

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