Renaissance and Reformation
The Renaissance brought a sharper focus on the classics.
- Embracing close study of classical texts
- Medicine- greater interest in human anatomy- based on observation & dissection
- Return of original Greek texts- Hippocrates & Galen- renewed faith in four humours & treatment by opposites
Public Health, War & the Plague of London
Public health was made worse by war.
- Religious differences led to many wars
- Population increase- towns & cities- strain on clean water supplies & sewage disposal systems
- Warfare- used up resources, destroyed crops & trapped people in beseiged towns- not enough food
- Starvation, Typhoid, plague & STIs followed armies around the continent
- Pressure on parishes- homelessness & disabled by war
- Naval power & science of navagtion- improved world wide communication
Plague of London
The Great Plague hit London in 1665.
- Black death- 100,000 dead- many fled
- Control- Afflicted houses- locked in and red crosses were put on doors
- Realised disease was contagious- didn't understand about germs
- The Great Fire of London 1666- steralised large parts of London- killed Plague
Printing and Anatomy Books
Printing- one of the greatest inventions of all time.
- Johann Gutenburg- introduced printing to Europe- 1454
- Accelerated rate of progress in medicine- easier- spread of ideas & debate
- William Caxton- set up first British printing press- 1476- Westminister Abbey
- Before-copy book by hand- books rare & precious- ideas thouroughly accepted
Vesalius wrote anatomy books with accurate diagrams.
- Allow to perform dissections- but not boil bodies for skeletons
- Became professor of surgery & anatomy at Pauda
- Performed own dissections & recorded observations with accurate diagrams
- The Fabric of the Human Body 1543
- Pointed out Galen's mistakes
Pare was forced to improvise.
- Baber surgeon- worked for public hospital, then became army surgeon
- At time- blood vessels (amputation) were sealed by cauterising the wound with a hot iron- discomfort & stressed patient
- Invented the ligature (tying off vessels with threads) & designed artificial legs
- Gunshot woulds- infection- people thought they were poisned by gunpower- pour hot oil into the wound or use hot iron. One battle- pare ran out of oil- used cool salve- patient did better
- Became surgeon to King of France
- Ideas were resisted by doctors- Kings support gained him acceptance
Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood.
- Studied medicine & anatomy at Pauda
- Became doctor & lecturer in London (Royal college of Surgeons) & then Royal Physician to James l and Charles l
- Did comparitive studies on animas & humans- observe living animals heart & apply to humans
- Galen- thought blood formed, carried to tissues, then consumes- Harvey proved this was wrong- realised blood circulates
- Identified difference between arteries & veins & that blood changes colour when it passes through the lungs
- Important & turning point in anatomy- but didn't radically change practice of surgery