The radicalisation of the state

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Boycott 1933 & Nuremberg laws 1935

Boycott- 1933 Attack on Jews by SA in streets, synagogues and in homes with no attempt from authoratiries to restrict the violence. The US responded by boycotting German goods in protest.  The state responed by boycotting Jewish businesses in Germany- and Hitler was cautious in deciding the attack should be limited to one day.

Outcome- real importnace is that it created a radical response from the state. The aim of Nazi's was to remove Jews from all walks of proffesional life, e.g. Law for the Restoration of the proffesional civil service, the same day a policy was made banning Jewish lawyers- an example of how policy was made on the 'roof' than anything.

Nuremberg Laws 1935- caused by increasing levels of propoganda and how there were increasing numbers of nazis still unhappy with the progress. Many Germans didn't like the SA's lawlessness, and individuals like Shacht sad there needed to be a more legal approach to the Jewish Q. Schact chaired a meeting to take an initiative on this, the government were really concerned about the lawlessness attacks so Hitler ordered an end- but they took a more legalised approach by decreeing Jewish and Aryan sexual relations should be banned and Hitler decided the Reich should create a law to alienate Jews out of German citizenship.

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Kristallnacht 1938- individuals

Country wide pogrom triggered by the shooting of Von Rath- an official of the German embassy in Paris by a young Polish Gew. -It can be said sanction for a more radical anti semitic line given by Hitler in Nuremberg rally 1937- attack launched on 'Jewish Bolshevism'. Hitler was still pursuing his ideology no dobut- in April 1937 in a gathering with Kreisleiter he decided to move more carefully into the Jewish Q but without compromising to actually solve it.

  • Individuals- 1937- Shacht's dismissal as Minister of Economics and Goring's appointment created a series of anti Jewish decrees e.g. limiting the ability of Jewish buisnesses to buy raw materials- apart of a long term strategy to 'Aryanise' Jewish businesses
  • Social Darwanism- a number of state ministries competed with eachother to isolate Jews e.g. Wagner issues a decree in 1938 forbidding Jewish docs treating Aryans. Hess took credit for the 'Sarah' and 'Israel' isolation deccree. Individual- Heydrich's SD could act outside law by and gave authority to those such as Adolf Eichmann who worked to remove Jews from the economy- he created the 'Central Office for the Emigration of the Austrian Jewry' so it facilitated Entjudung. 1938- debates on Madagascar. Goebells- Gaulieter position to create huge violence in Berlin
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Kristillnacht- events, response of individuals

Event- the Anschluss with Austria incorporated 195,000 Jews into the Reich, Jewish property siezed, the homes of 40,000 Austrian Jews stolen. 1938- Goring ordered a a Decree to register Jewish property which would be taken under the state.

Response of Kristillnacht- Goebells prompted everyone to act towards radicalisation, the violence was huge- 8,000 busuinssess damaged, 30,000 Jews arrested and taken into concertration camps. No consult was there for the pogrom- it just happened. Hitler supported Goebells in it, so Goring's responsibility for economic spheres was ignored.

Despite the influence of Goebells in provoking it- ultimately, Goring was told to carry out the next stage- he was quick to sieze the oppurtunity and in a meeting on the 12th November- discussions for for measures were discussed with Heydrich and Goebbels- and Jews were further economically discriminated.

24 January- Goring set up a Reich Central Office for Jewish Emirgration and placed Heydrich at its centre, the long term impact of Kristillnacht was it became heavily focused on removing Jews out of all works of live all together.

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The Final Solution

Weltachshaunng- Fest quotes that 'the state philosophy' of the Third Reich, lay in the idea of Race. The creation of a racially 'pure' Germany was at the heart of Hitler's world view.

Hitler viewed it all prophetically- he said 'I want today to be a prophet again', in his Reichstag speech 1939 he used the word 'Vernichtung- which means 'annihlation' this is significant as he places responsibility on him.

1941- Nazi obsession with identifying who was a Jew and not through all Jews being ordered to wear the star of David badge. 1943- loss of German citizenship.

Turnig point September 1939- Conquest of Poland=more Jews into the Reich

  •  Summer 1940-Heydrich's Madagascar plan which failed because of the reliance on British defeat.
  • June 1941- WAR- invasion of USSR=millions more Jews into Reich, SS murdered 700,000 J.
  • Autumn 1941- Hitler was debating- shooting etc not sustainiable option. WAR- Stalin ordered 600k ethnic Germans to be deported to Siberia and the US navy announced to shoot on sight of any threatening German war ships.
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Deportations

Conditions in the East led to pressure from Gaulieter who wanted to get rid of Jews from their territory.

Hitler and Himmler met for lunch to discuss deportations and in mid Sepetember- the order was given but it moved to a later date

Gaulieter went to local solutions like gassing at a camp and being fassed in vans.

October- Gestapo chief stated that no Jew could emigrate from Reich

November- Goebells propoganda inspired anti Jewish hatred- e.g. 'annihlation of Jewish race'

December 1941- final turning point when the US entered war. December- Hitler told Himmler Jews were to be exterminated as 'partisians' as Russian Jews were already being shot, this could only authorise extermination of the rest.

Wanasee 1942- Heydrich chaired it and got the government into an agreement about what steps should be taken next- and the holocause was reached.

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