HOW IT WORKED
- Poor rate paid by property owners in Parish.
- Overseer (unpaid) collected poor rate and gave to needy.
- Flexible- Different parishes had different systems:
- Roundsman system (5% of parishes) ticket to employer. Paid what would have got poor rate- wages low no incentive to work.
- Speenhamland system sliding scale-based on price of bread.- Expensive
- Workhouse- very few.
WHY PROBLEMS BY 1815
- Increased numbers claiming poor relief. Why? High food prices, changes- Farming, trade depression.
- Some felt 'outdoor relief' abused by some poor.
- Costs rose 4 null- 7 null, 1803-1832.
- Some overseers imcompetent.
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ROYAL COMMISSION RECOMMENDATIONS
VIEWS OF COMMISSION
- Cost of relief rising.
- Local admin- inefficient/corrupt.
- Main problem-outdoor relief.
- End outdoor relief for able bodied poor.
- Establish one system of poor relief run by a central board.
- Make parishes join together- build and run workhouses.
- Give poor relief only to those in a workhouse.
- Make workhouses- worst option.
- Seperate men, women and children in the workhouse.
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THE POOR LAW 1834- WHAT IT DID
2 MAIN PRINCIPLES.
- Less Eligibility
WHAT IT DID.
- Central poor law commission
- Edwin Chadwick- secrerary to the commissiom
- Grouped parishes- UNIONS. By 1838-573 unions
- Each union-elect Board of Guardians who run the Poor Law.
- Workhouse-centrepiece of new system.
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- Families split
- Strict discipline
- Diet-plain and sparse
- Intention- unpleasant
- Quality of people running workhouses varied
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SOUTHERN ENGLAND- SUCCESS BECAUSE.
- Good harvest.
- Low unemployment.
- People who paid poor rate- happy therefore less.
- Poor- fewer therefore good economic conditions.
NORTHAN ENGLNAD- NOT SO SUCCESSFUL BECAUSE.
- Fluid employment, many out of work-short periods therefore outdoor relief better.
- Poor-powerful-as industrial therefore closer together, therefore organised opposition.
- Labelled WH- Bastille.
- Many factory owners opposed.
WEAKNESS OF LAW.
- Areas with fluctuation in employment- WH not good.
- Commissioners- too much power.
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