The Periodic Table

Revision Cards for the Chemistry test next week

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Atoms and Elements

  • Atoms make up everything
  • Atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons
  • Protons are positive
  • Neutrons are neutral
  • Electrons are negative
  • The greek philosopher- Democritus- proposed that the physical world consisted of atoms
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Putting elements in order

  • Each element contains just one type of atom
  • Each atom has the same number of protons
  • This is called the atomic number
  • The number of protons and neutrons added together is the mass number or the nucleon number.
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Electron Structures

  • Electrons are aranged in shells around the nucleus of the atom
  • Each electron shell can hold a maximum amount of electrons
  • The first shell can hold a maximum of two electrons
  • The second and third shells can hold up to eight electrons
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Chemical Shorthand

  • We can use a shorthand to write down the particles in an atom
  • The larger number is the mass number
  • The smaller number is the atomic number
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  • In every element each atom has the same number of protons.
  • In most elements, there are different variations with varying numbers of neutrons
  • Atoms of the same number but with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes
  • Some isotopes are reactive
  • They decay over time and become less radioactive
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