the Allience systems
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in 1882.
Britain, France and Russia formed the Triple Entente (which signalled the end of British 'Isolantionsit' policies).
Germany was particularly scared of 'encirclement
kaiser Wilhelm's foreign policy
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany wanted great things for the newly formed Germany, particularly 'a place in the Sun' - or Empire. This caused tension between the Great Powers. His policy was known as 'Weltpolitik' and this affected how he dealt with foreign affairs, making German foreign policy more aggressive.
the arms race
he European powers began to build up their defences. Britain focussed on her Navy - as an island with a large Empire. Most of the rest of Europe built up its armies in response to the tension in this era..
Britain and Germany engaged in a Naval Race - who could build the mostDreadnoughts? Britain had 29 by 1914
The Great Powers also began to eengage in an ARMS RACE, in particular Germany had 1.5 million in their army by 1914.
the Moroccan crisis 1905 and 19011
Key points to remember
1905 Kaiser Wilhelm visisted Morocco and supported its independence. This caused an issue with France who was looking to take it over. The conference at Algerciras humiliated Germany, giving France power of the police and arms.
1911 there were rebellions against the pro-French leader. The French tried to take over again so Germany sent the gun ship the Panther. Again a conference was called. The French were given Morocco and Germany 100,000sq metres of French Congo in compensation.
This proved the alliance between Britain and France.
Bosnian crisis 1908 and 1909
Key points to remember:
Bosnia was annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908. This really upset theSerbians, as their desire was to unite all Serbs within the Balkans. The asked 'big brother' Russia for support. However, Russia was not prepared to fight a war over this issue and Austria-Hungary had full support from Germany due to the alliance system.
The reason this event is so important is that Russia vowed not to back down in the future.
death of Franz
rch Duke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austri-Hungary throne, was assassinated by Gavrilo Princep, member of the Serbian Nationalist group the Black Hand, 28th June 1914, in Sarajovo, Bosnia.
This one event took the World to War. To understand why, make sure to recap the alliance systems, arms race, and tensions built up to this point...
events leading to war- alliences
A - Austria-Hungary wrote Serbia an ultimatum. Although Serbia agreed to most of the points this wasnt good enough for Austria. They were also given a 'blank cheque' from Germany who, as their ally, would support them in whatever happened. So they began to bomb Belgrade, capital of Serbia R- In response to the bombings in Serbia, Russia, determined not to back down again after the Bosnian crisis of 1908, mobilised her army. S - The German plan for war - the Schlieffen Plan, plus the fear of having to fight a war on two fronts led to thier attack of France through neutral Belgium. E - In respect of the Treaty of London, Britain joined the war to protect neutral Belgium. Unofficially she was also trying to protect herself.
The Schlieffen Plan was a plan of ATTACK. Fearing a war on two fronts, it planned to take France and Paris in just 6 weeks. This was meant to be the time it took for Russia to mobilise. However, in practise, General Molkte changed the plan so that there would be less troops sweeping through France. The French and the British Expeditionary Force held up the attack at the Marne
Britain enters war
On 4th August, the day after the Germans invaded Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany. In part this was becuase she guaranteed the neutrality ofBelgium in 1839. Also the British wanted to prevent the coastline of norther France from falling into the hands of an enemy.