The Role of the Gods
* The gods play a direct role in the fates of characters
* They act as mentors and spiritual guides, specific to certain characters
* They enable the hero to advance or decline through theire positive or negative devine intervention
* They are volatile and unpredictable, and display human qualities that can be seen as flaws
* They add excitement to the poem as there is a chaotic element created by their decisions and actions
* The gods shape and manipulate fate, although they know humans are directly responsible for their own fate
"What a lamentable thing it is that men should blame the gods and regard us as the source of their troubles when it is their own transgressions that bring them suffering"