The Odyssey

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  • Created by: Bormerod
  • Created on: 04-12-14 09:09

Book 1

  • Od is trapped on Ogygia with Calypso, pitied by all Gods except Poseidon
  • Athene arrives at Od's house in Ithaca, disguised as Mentes,  and is greeted by Tel.  She hints that Od will return home soon, instructs Tel to rid the house of Suitors and travel to Pylos and Sparta in search of news.  Mentes leaves "like a bird" and Tel realises it was a Goddess.
  • The Bard sings about Troy, causing Penelope to cry, Tel sends her to her quarters, and informs the suitors of his plans for them to leave

Tel's epithets: Couteous, Thoughtful, Prudent, Sensible

Tel changes from depressed and giving up to hopeful, brave, andmaking a reputation for himself.

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Book 5

  • Zeus sends hermes to Ogygia to instruct Calypso to set Od free.  Ogygia is very beautiful.  Calypso thinks it is unfair that  Goddess can never love a mortal, but a God can.  Od is warned of future misery, but still wants to leave.
  • Od builds a raft, and Calypso provides him with parting gifts - Xenia.
  • Poseidon sees Od returning and creates a great storm.  Leucothoe pities Od and instructs him toswim with her veil for protection against harm.
  • At first Od found a dangerous coast, then found the mouth of a river.  The slept.

Use of similes make the description more vivid: "sitting astride like a rider on horseback."

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Book 6

  • In her sleep, Athene visits Nausicaa, and encourages her to visit the washing pools in the morning.  She travelled there the next day with her maids.
  • Od wakes and hears Nausicaa and her maids playing with a ball.  When they see him they run away as it is such a horrible sight, Athene give Nausicaa courage and she helps him.  The show him the way to the city.
  • He must wait outside the city and eneter alone, and ask for directions to her father's palace.  Od waits in Athene's grove and prays, asking her why she didn't help him.
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Book 7

  • Athene, disguised as a young girl gives him directions to the palace and envelopes him in a mist so no-one will stop him and ask questions.  Od is instructed to go straight into the palace and speak to Arete.
  • The palace was beautiful and Od was in awe.  He clasped Arete's knees and all their guests fell silent as the mis around him fell.
  • He pleaded for help returning home, but recieved no answer until an elder promted Alcinous.  Then they agreed to help him.
  • Od explains how Nausicaa had helped him at the washing pools, and said he chose to enter the city alone.

The Palace: golden, silver, bronze, high roofed, well built, large, tall, guarded doors, radiance, draped chairs, statues held flaming torches, topped by enamel, immortal sentries, lavish, golden doors, tall charis, large orchard.

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Book 8

  • Alcinous holds an assembly, and Athene gathers citizens & makes Od look more favourable.  Alcinous invides the crew that will help Od to his palace for dinner, and the princes and Bard entertain Od.  The bard sang of Od & Achilles, causing od to weep, so Alcinous had games instead.
  • Alcinous' son asked od to join in, but he refused.  Eurylus insulted Od, so he took part and beat them all.  Alcinous, wants the Phaecians to be remembered to be good at something, so he brings out the dancers, and Od praises them.
  • The princes were instructed to provide parting gifts.  The bard played again, under the instruction of Od to sing of the Trojan Horse, again Od cried, so Alcinous asked of his past and who he was.  Alcinous explains the prophecy that a ship would sink returning a visitor home and the city would be surounded by mountains.
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Book 9

Od tells the story of his journey:

  • Travelling back from Troy, the sacked the city of the Cicones.  When Od wanted to leave, the crew didn;t and there was a large battle.  When they left, Zeus sent a gale, tearing the sails, and arrived at the land of the Lotus eaters.  The lotus fruit caused the crew to forget home, so od had to force them back onto the ship.
  • The Cyclopes were fierce & lawless.  Some of the crew and Od entered a cave full of wine and cheese, the crew wanted to leave, but Od wanted to stay. The Cyclops - Polyphemus (Poseidon's son)  wasn't happy to see them, they were trapped in the cave, and he ate 2 men a day.  Od make Polyphemus drunk, then stabbed his eye with a stake, they escaped undeer the sheep.
  • As they departeed on their ship, Od mocked Polyphemus, he threw rocks, the 1st causing a wave pushing them back to shore, the 2nd pushing them away.  Polyphemus prayed to his father that they may never return home.
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Book 10

  • They stayed in Aeolia for 1 month, and departed with a sack of wind.  When they were nearly home, The crew opened the sack as they thought it had gold in it, the wind pushed them back to Aeolia.  They returned to Aeolius' house, but were not welcome as they must be really hated by the Gods.
  • All ships except Od's moored in the harbour at the land of the Lystrogonians (giant herdsmen), A girl directed the to Antipahtes' house (the chief).  lmps of rock were thrown at the ships, and Od's was the only one to escape.
  • At Aeaea, Circe turned half the crew to Pigs.  Od went to rescue them, Hermes gave him Moly, an antidote to her frug, so he wasn't turned to a pig.  Od pursuaded her to free his crew.  She did so and they stayed with her for a year, until the crew encouraged him to leave.  Elpenor had died falling from the roof when drunk.  Circe instructed Od of the need to vist the halls of Hades, speak to Teiresias the prophet, dig a ditch, pour offerings to the dead, sprinkle barley & sacrifice a jet black sheep.

Polyphemus: dangerous, with love for sheep, perverting xenia, similar to laestrogonians.  Od uses cunning, violence, bravery, there is bad leadership.                                                              Circe: trickery, witch, kind, perverting xenia, beautiful, similar to calypso & lotus eaters.  Od uses bravery, at first there is no plan, he is helped by Hermes, he forgot about home.

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Book 11

  • They followed Circe's instructions, Elpenor (who had died in Aeaea) begged them to give him a proper burial so he could enter hades.  Teiresais explained that the mustn't eat the sun God's sheep, or they will all be destroyed, if Od escapes, he will arrive home late on a foreign ship, alone, with suitors at home.
  • Od's mother explained how he was missed by Penelope.  Agamemnon, advised Od not to trust his wife as he had been killed by her lover when he had returned home.  Out of fear of the tribes of the dead and Persephone's monster, Od and his crew then left.
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Book 12

  • They returned to Aeaea to bury Elpenor.  Circe instructed Od on the next journey, in a similar way to Teirasais (was the journey to Hades necessary?).  They must ensure they don't hear the song of the Sirens or they will be killed, The there are 2 routes, the wandering rocks, where rocks rolling of the cliff will wreck the ship, or the polished rock with Scylla followed by another rock where Charybdis, swallows up water and then spits it out again.  They mustn't eat the sun God's cattle.
  • They followed her instructions, sailed past the Sirens, as expected 6 of the crew were eaten by Scylla. They landed at the Island of the sun and Od instructed the crew not to eat the cattle.  A storm came up, and they were stuck on the island, and ran out of food.  Whilst Od was asleep the crew ate some of the cattle after being pursuaded by Eurylochus.
  • They left the Island as soon as they could, then a squall wrecked the ship, killing the crew (who had eaten the cattle), Od survived, drifting on the keel.  He drfited back to the polished rock, when Charybdis sucked the raft down, he held onto the fig tree and then swam to his raft when it was trown back up.  Eventually he washed up on Ogygia.
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Book 13

  • Od asked to be on his way.  On the ship he fell into a deep sleep whilst the ship moved quickly "like a team of stallions".  Od woke in a cave with all his belongings.
  • Poseidon was upset that Od had returned, as a compromise to his revenge, Zeus permited him to turn the ship into rock offshore and make her sink.  The Phaeacians saw this happen, and were reminded of an old prophecy.  They gave up their custom of seeing home guests.
  • Od couldn't recognise Ithaca as Athene covered it with mist.  Od thought the Phaeacians had left him on a random island.  Athene appeared as a young shepherd and told him he was on Ithaca.  Od told a false tale of coming as an exile from Crete.
  • Athene appeared as a beautiful woman and told him to give up his lies.  She ddenies his accusations and tells him bhow she heldped him on his wanderings, and her resraints.
  • Athene explains the problem at the palace and together they plot the downfall of the suitors.  She made him look like an old beggar and sent him to Eumaeus, whilst she went to send Tel home.
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Book 14

  • Ath the yard Eumaus called away the dogs just before they attacked Od, as he approached.  Eumaus spoke of his concern for Od and the kindness of Penelope, then offored him hospitality.  The stock of swine was being depleated by the suitors.
  • Od creates a false tale of his past: from a rich Cretian family, son of a concubine, left very little in his fathers will.  He was a great warrior, and well respected, he came into trouble returning from Egypt, he was nearly killed and sold.  He learned of Od and his riches in Thesprotia.  The Gods helped him to escape from captivity on a ship at Ithaca.
  • Although Od promised on his life that the story of Od's return is true, Eumaeus didn't believe the story as he had heard many similar about Od, but he still welcomed him as he feared Zeus. 
  • Wanting to test him, Od tell another tale: One cold night in Troy, whilst waiting by the city walls, he forgot his cloak, he told od who was next to him, and Od sent one of the other soliders on an errand, leaving a cloak for him.Eumaeus offored him a cloak for the night - passing the test.
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Book 16

  • Tel arrives at the hut and is welcomed by Eumaeus "like a fond father welcoming back his son".  He meets Od (as a beggar) and says that he doesn't have the strength to welcome him to the palace, but would fund him staying with the swineherd.  Od says that he would fught the suitors, and rather die in his own home.  Eumaeus is sent to the palace to tell of Tel's return.
  • Athene told Od to tell Tel who he is.  Eventually Tel believed him and the cried "like birds of prey".
  • Together they come up with a plan to bring down the 108 suitors: Tel welcomes Od into the palace, then remove the weapons from the hall, leaving only a few for themselves, they will discover which servants are loyal.  Tel agrees with all except sounding out the servants.
  • Tel's ship approached the harbour and sent a message to the palace, who told of Tel's return in front of all the maids, Eumaeus told penelope in private.  The suitors acknoledged that they had done wrong and began to ackoledge that they would be punished.  Penelope told them that she disapproaved of their actions, especially as od had helped many of them or their families.
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Book 19

  • Eurycleia was pleased that Tel was finally caring for Od's possessions.  od accompanied him to carry the light, but Athene shed a beautiful glow for them, causing Tel to comment that a God must be present.
  • After insults, Od criticises Melantho's behaviour  Od compliments Od and Penelope.  She tells him of her trick with the shroud so she didn't have to marry one of the suitors yet.  Od tells a false story of his past, and Penelope believes that he did meet Od.
  • Od allows only Eurycleia to wash his feet.  She recognises the shar on his foot.  He threatens that he will kill her if she tells anyone who he is.
  • Penelope tells of he dream about the geese and the eagle leaving her as confused as the "trill of a nightingale".  Od says it means that Od will return and destroy the suitors.  penelope tells of her plan to test the suitors, they must shoot an arrow through 12 axes - Od was able to.
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Book 21

  • Penelope wept when she retrieved the bow.  She told the suitors of all their wrongdoings in her house, then explained the test.Eumaeus and Philoetius cried, but Antinous turned on them, he was confident.
  • Tel tried the bow, he could have on his 3rd attempt, but Od stopped him.  No-one cold string the bow - Antinous wanted to grease & warm it, but still unsuccessful.
  • Od found that Emaues and Philoetuius were loyal, so told them who he was.  He offered prizes to help defeat the suitors.  Eumaeus should bring Od the bow, & Philoetius shouldlock the courtyard gate.
  • Eurymachus & Antinous wanted to try the next day.  Od asked to try, the suitors were angry and threatened to kill him if he's successful - worried about reputation.  Penelope told them they've already ruined their reputation.  tel wanted Od to try & sent Penelope away.
  • Eurycleia locked the doors & eumaeus & Philoetius carried out the roles, the Od shot the arrow through all the rings.
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Book 22

  • Od shot Antinous.  The suitors thought it was an accident.  They couldn't find any weapons but warned that punishemnt would come like "vultures".  Od said they would be punished for their wrongdoings.
  • Eurymacus blamed Antinous, but Od still killed him.  The battle began & Tel went to get armour.  Melanthius offered to find weapons for the suitors.  This scared Od so instructed Eumaeus & Philoetius to hang him by his hands and feet from the top of a pillar.
  • Athene came disguised as Mentor, then sat on a beam in the hall as a swallow.  She diverted the suitor's spears so the missed.  Leodes begged for mercy, but he had wanted to marry so was killed.  Pehmius & medon were spared.
  • The suitors were lying dead like fish.  Eurycleia saw Od like a lion and rejoiced, but Od rebuked this.
  • The disloyal maids carried out the dead, cleaned the palace then were hung like doves in a snare.  then they cut off Melanthius' nose, ears, genitals, hands and feet.
  • Od sent Eurycleia to get sulphur and make a fire to clean the palace more, and the loyal maids came to help.
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Book 23

  • Eurycleia woke Penelope, but she didn't belive that Od was back until she heard about the scar on his foot, but she was still unsure.
  • Od instructed Tel to make it look as if there was a wedding feast so nobody would ask questions.
  • Penelope, to test Od, asked Eurycleia to move her bed.  Od was upset as that bed was made around the trunk of a tree.  This proved it was Od.  Athene held back noghtfall for them.
  • He warned what Teiresias ahd told him of the journey to come.   Travel until an oar is referred to as a winnowing fan, place it into the ground, sacrifice a ram, bull, boar to Poseidon, return home and sarifice to all the Gods.
  • I the morning Od left for the orchards to see Laetres.  He instructed Penelope to wait upstaris and speak to no-one.  Athene hid od, Tel, Eumaeus and Philoetius as they left the city.
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Book 23

  • Eurycleia woke Penelope, but she didn't belive that Od was back until she heard about the scar on his foot, but she was still unsure.
  • Od instructed Tel to make it look as if there was a wedding feast so nobody would ask questions.
  • Penelope, to test Od, asked Eurycleia to move her bed.  Od was upset as that bed was made around the trunk of a tree.  This proved it was Od.  Athene held back noghtfall for them.
  • He warned what Teiresias ahd told him of the journey to come.   Travel until an oar is referred to as a winnowing fan, place it into the ground, sacrifice a ram, bull, boar to Poseidon, return home and sarifice to all the Gods.
  • I the morning Od left for the orchards to see Laetres.  He instructed Penelope to wait upstaris and speak to no-one.  Athene hid od, Tel, Eumaeus and Philoetius as they left the city.
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