The New Deal

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  • Created by: naomih
  • Created on: 28-04-13 05:40

The 100 days

New Deal 3 main aims:

- Relief:  extreme poverty, feed the starving, stop losing homes/farms

- Recovery: Revive economy by getting industries going

- Reform: Make USA a better place bringing measures e.g. unemplyment pensions

Talking to people:

- 8 days after his inauguration, gave first radio boradcasts known as Fireside chats

Sorting the banks:

- since 1930, over 5000 banks had been forced to close 

- Closed all banks for a '4day holiday' and rushed an Emergency Banking Act in 8 hrs

- Only banks gov. decided were honest allowed to reopen, restored public confidence and customers redeposited $1billion shortly after

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The Alphabet Agencies(1)


 -Farm Credit Admin. (FCA) made loans to 1/5 farmers                        -Agricultural Adjustment Agency (AAA) killed 6 mill piglets, 1933-39 income doubed


-Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (1933-42) 3 mill men under 25 joined           -CIvilian Works Admin. (CWA) (1933-34)gave jobs to 4 mill e.g. sweep leaves    -Public Works Admin. (PWA) $7 bill spent emply skilled men to build dams, bridges etc        : (1933-39) built 70% Schools 35% hospitals

Helping needy:

-Federal Emergency Relief Admin. (FERA) given $500mil to help poor e.g. soup kitchens -Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) loaned money to >1mill prevent losing homes

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The Alphabet Agencies(2)


-National Recovery Admin. (NRA) to increase workers wages, prices of goods, fairer    deal in workplace (working conditions+shorter hours)- -Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) built 33 dams to control Tennessee river (Norris Dam)

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2nd New Deal

Most alphabet agencies set up in 1935, more introduced during 1935-37

American society+improving conditions for ordinary people:

-Works Progress Admin. (WPA)1935 gave work to 2mill built roads, bridges,tunnels etc     -Social Security Act 1935 state pension for over 65s, proposed unemployment insurance      scheme with aid from the federal gov.     -The Wagner Act 1935 Senator Wagner support workers wanting to form trade unions     -Resettlement Admin. (RA)1935 aimed to move 500,000 families to better land     replaced by Farm Security Admin(FSA) 1937 gave loans to sharecroppers+farmers - set up labour camps helped migrants

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Who did not support the New Deal (interfered too m

Republicans: claimed Roosevelt behaving like a dicatator

      : TVA+NRA schemes like the communist economic planning

      : The Social Security Act undermine the American way of life

Business: not like gov. interference in their affairs e.g. raise wages

: 1934, formed the LIberty League to oppose New Deal

The rich: resented having to pay higher taxes, taken some of their power

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who did not support the New Deal (not doing enough

Huey 'Kingfish' Long:

-by 1934, he sttacked new deal for not doing enought for poor     -Proposed 'Share Our Wealth" scheme: every family given $4000-5000., min wage etc.     -Had many opponents, in 1935 assasinated by a yound doctor

Doctor Francis Townsend:

-Proposed everyone over 60 hsould get pension of $200/month     -Thought this would provide jobs for young people, demand for goods     - Older poeple liked the idea, 7000 'Townsend Clubs' 

Father Coughlin, the 'radio' priest:

-broadcast his ideas on radio to some 40 mill Americans on Sun evenings     -Accused Roosevelt of failing to tackle the problems of poor     -Set up National Union For Social Justice, attracted millions     -His idea was confused and audience faded away by 1940

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Supreme Court and the New Deal

Supreme Court Judgements:

-Ruled that National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) was unconstitutional cant control busin. -1936, declared measures taken by (AAA) could only be made by individual states not gov

Roosevelt's Response:

-1936, asked Congress to give him power to appoint 6 new judges     -picked judges that were sympathetic towards the New deal, attempt to 'pack the Court'   -judges were shaken and some retired voluntarily    -New judges were less hostile, accepted New Deal in more carefully constructed laws

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How Successful was the New Deal

Black People:

-remained 2nd-class citiznes, still widespread racism+discrimination       -Segregation continued even in the New Deal (segregated CCC camps)   -by 1935, 30% living on relief, (1940), 1 in 20 blacks to 1 in 3 whites get desk job   -failed to put through civil rights laws (anti-lynching law)   -DID BENEFIT 200,000 in CCC, given positions of responsibility in the New Deal

Native Americans: DID BENEFIT

-Indian Re-organisation Act 1934 provided money to buy own land for tribe(50mill acres) -Gave the right to manage their own affairs e.g. setting up their own courts of law


-only 800,000 included in CCC, cheap labour -> wages hald of men in 1937   -Social Security Act required gov to provide money for women+child BUT states avoid    -DID BENEFIT given positions of responsibility e.g. Mary Macleod, Francis Perkins

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Was Roosevelt Good for America?


-driving force behind the New Deal, left much lasting value e.g. schools   -relieved suffering of millions, orgranising gov.funded relief   -rescued banking system+saved business from collapsing   -raised morale+inspired hope which gave people courage to face challenge   -saved democracy in America


-did not get American economy out of Depression, policies did not beat high unemplyed -did not do enought for certain groups: black people           -made central gov.+presidency too powerful, damaging independance of Supreme Court -Interfered too much in poeple's lives, taking away self-reliance e.g. Social Security Act -Prevented businesses from recovering quickly with rules and growth of labour Unions

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