The making of a super power--- the USSR and the world (The Fuhrer & the Vozhd--The Nazi Soviet Pact)

The beggining of the war up to 1942. 

German invasion and the human and economic cost involved

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Dracupine
  • Created on: 07-04-13 15:48

The Fuhrer & the Vozhd---The Nazi Soviet Pact

1933: Hitler beciomes Chancellor 

1936-1937: Anti-Comintern Pact  (Italy, Japan & Germany)

Stalin's response:

  • Reforming the military
  • International espionage (spying)
  • Economic preparation


  • Military discipline in the Red Army tightened
  • Reintroduces Tsarist system of strict discipline between officers and men
  • 1937-1938:
  • Red Army extensively purged. Loss of military experience & skill 35,000 killed

Large network of spires: Communist sypathisers (UK, USA, France & German Gov. ) willing to give info

Stalin did not trust information (paranoid) info never analysed

1930's: Russia's intelligence resources focused on the hunt for Trotsky

  • Rearmament  essential for 3rd five-year plan
  • 1st= 266 million r 2nd= 2,080 million r 3rd= 4,200 million r spent on military
  • Purges led to chaos in Gov. departments
  • Administrators hed to work from draft. Little detail or organisation
  • No agreed budget for military spending

1936:  6 new aircraft & 24 new explosives factory's

1942: X2  as many tanks produced than in 1938

Although during 1936-1919 german production was larger and quicker than Russia, by 1940 Russia were producing more armarment than germany and by 1941 almost double

1 of 4

Human Cost

At least 10% of Russian population died

Estimated 20million citizens died (over 30million including Gulags & war-injury victims)

  • Caused social upheaval
  • 85million Russian's [48%] under German control
  • 20million fled/ escaped communist repression
  • Kalmyk's (130,000) removed & replaced by Russian citizens
  • 60% of Kalmyk's died from harsh treatment in just 1 year

Poor working conditions 

Agriculture & tractors ceased

Factories turned to tank & plane production

Field's ploughed by hand & workers expected to work 7 days a week 12-18 hours a day

First day off in 4 years was on 9th May 1945

Discipline tightened (20+ mins late or looted, sent to military for punishment)

  • Women expected to work in fatories & look after family
  • Had to deal with continual shortages & hunger
  • Women made majority of work force (Shadrinsk [place in Russia] female pop. 75%)
  • Sometimes women yoked to ploughs as no tractors or animals avaliable

Young people 14-17 years drafted to 'Labour Reserve Schools' vocational training for war work

Senior party members (Moscow & Leningrad) sent to collective farms or regional factories

Often started second family as away for years (deserted 2nd family after war)

2 of 4

Economic Cost

WW2 sent economy back 10 years (progress destroyed)

Germany gained control of 5% of Russia's industry

Russian labour being conscripted into army

Only 59% in 1942 ogf what production was in 1940

But by 1944 rose to 79%

1942 grain production 36% of what it was in 1940 but improved to 64%

  • Living standards significantly diminished
  • Gov. took 90% of production by farms
  • Lived off 'Blackade Bread' (mostly sawdust)
  • Birds, rats, pets & even cannibalism at one oint 
  • No electricity

June 1941: Sabotage industrial equipment to stop Germans. ---------1/4 destroyed

Those occupied bt germany 2/3 destroyed

Germans burnt crops to hinder Russia as well as factories & machinery

Blew up bridges & slaughtered cattle 'Scorch earth policy'

Believed 70,000 villages, 32,000 factories & 65,000km railway destroyed by war

3 of 4

Conclusion on Super power

Although there was huge carnage and death, and the economy failed, it was a huge victory for those who survived (it was a blessing) and production did survive. 

Due to horrific conditions, it toughened Russians further however, people did become rather fed up with Communism.

Nevertheless, Stalin did become a super power which went from East Asia to Berlin

4 of 4


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »