Statue Law- The law made by parliment.
These are laws that have been laid down by parliment, which are more useful for consumers, as most consumer laws extend people rights by placing specific conditions.
Common Law- The law based on decisions made by judges over the years.
This the is common law, and was made based on moral principles. These include honesty, fairness, concern for one's neighbouts and more. These decisions are made by judges after a series of trials with the same outcomes and consequences.
Without The Acts~
Acts are there to help keep our society safe and a better place to live altogether, but what would happen if we didn't have them?
- Offences Against the person act 1861 You cannot physically hurt other people. -Society would lack order - Breaching of peoples human rights.
- Theft Act 1968 You can't take other people's possessions -Society would lack order -There would be no use of money, people could loose or gain everything in a moment.
- Education Act 1944 Everyone is entitled to a free education -People would have a much smaller chance of education. -People would no longer be as equal in education with a chance to change for the better and improve their life.
- Motor Vehicle Regulations 1935 You have to be a certain age and pass a test before you can drive a vehicle -Society would lack order -There would be more danger, destruction and harm caused in a society.
Criminal Justice System
- Criminal Justice System: A major public service that employs over 400000 people. It includes the police, the Crown Prosecution service, Her Majesty's Court Service, Probation Services and the Youth Justice Board.
- Parliament: Makes the laws.
- Magistrates/Judges: Interpret the law and deliver consequences.
- Police: Enforces the law, but does not punish.
- Ministry of Justice: Responsible for criminal law and sentencing. Tries to reduce reoffending. In charge of prisons and probation. In charge of Magistates' Courts, Crown Courts and the Appeals Court.
- Home Office: Responsible for policing, security and counter-terrorism. Also borders and immigration.
- The Office and the Attorney General: This keeps an eye on the Serious Fraud Office, Crown Prsecution Service and Revenue and CUstoms.
- Youth Justice Board: Aims to prevent young people from offending. It identifies and deals with young offenders and ries to limit re-offending.
Young People And The Law
How are they treated differently?
Young people are treated significantly differently by the law, the main reason being because they are 'young' epople. Beneath the ages of 10 and 18, you are treated varyingly differently by the law, in the charges you are given and the punishment. Another is because parents are still their legal guardians, meaning that they are not fully responsible for their actions as of ye. At this point they have not fully learned everything in schools, meaning that they are less likely to know as their sense and knowledge of right and wrong has not yet fully developed. They are also not able to do things such as vote, or make important decisions fully involved in the law.
Young People and The Law
Sentancing Young Offenders
The aim of sentancing is to protect the public and punish the offence. Sentances for young offenders are set in a way that they can punish, reduce re-offending and provide a means to pay back the community.
The young offender may recieve the following sentances by acourt:
- Reparation Order, for example repairing damage caused to property or cleaning up graffiti.
- Community punishment, for 16-17 year olds. This might include programmes to address offending behaviour.
- Curfew order, requiring the offender to remain in a specified place for set periods of time.
- Drug treatment and testing order, for individuals with drug misuse issues.
- Referral Orders- given to all young offenders (age 10-17) pleading guilty and convicted for a first offence.
What are civil liberties?
These are set limits for government so that it cannot abuse it's power and intefere with the lives of citizens harmfully.
They are closely related to human rights. Your civil liberties include: -Freedom of association -Freesom of assembly -Freedom of religion -Freedom of speech -The right to due process, to fair trial, to own property and to privacy.
What Is Media? Media is a way for communicaing informationan and news to the public. It carries many different types, with some examples being; documentaries, advertisements, television programmes and music. The media can adapt messages depending on who their target audience is and what they are conveying.
Reasons why the media is so important Information: This reports and broadcasts news, which can keep people informed about what is happening not only locally, but nationally and internationally as well. This then helps people feel part of a community and society at large. Citizens are given information through advertising, so they know what is available to purchase. An example is the BBC news and weather. Persuasion: Party political broadcasts and advertisements try to persuade citizens to vote in elections, and also to help them make choices and decisions. Which is an eesential part of democracy. Possible buyers are tempted through advertising, making money for businesses and therefore wages for workers. Examples of these can be found in the many AD breaks on television. Education: These materials are available for citizens of all ages, which is important in our quickly and constantly developing world. Employment: Many people have jobs with the media industry form which they recieve salaries. Businesses can earn money that allow them to invest and employ mroe people. Entertainment: As people become richer, they want more leisure activities and can afford to pay for them. Some examples are; video games, music, theatre and exhibitions.
Free Press Vs. Restricted Press
What is Restricted Press? Resricted press is where newspaper and other companies are stopped from publishing other stories through the law. These companies are then stopped from publising stories that may be deemed harmful or against a persons human rights. What is free press? This can also be known as freedom of the press, which allows the press to publish throught, beliefs and opinions without restrictions or interferance from the government, general public or the courts.
Censorship: The good and bad.
Censorship can be classed as both. It allows the public to be taken away from stories and language that can be deemed offensive.