The Korean War 1950- 3
- Europe had been the focus of cold war conflict, However after 1949 this began to centre on Asia.
- This created US concern that Communism would spread.
- Soon North Korea invaded South Korea
What Where The Orgins Of The War?
- Korea was to be occupied by the military forces of the USSR and the USA to help intervene the collusions, a dividing line was set up between the North & South Korea (38th Parallel)
- Was never mean to be permant just intill government conformation was made.
....However, North Korea and the USSR refused to co-operate with its activity, this then lead to The Repubic of Korea being put in the South whom were Anti-Communist under the rule of Syngman Rhee. On the other hand was the People Commitee whom were mainly Communist and was the base Government in the North.
- Eventually USA and USSR troops left Korea under there argreement.
- Intill 1949 when skirmishes broke out, which sparked both troops. Which caused Rhee to ask for US help, US allowed troops to be sent it, and by June 1950 North Korea attacked South.
The USA Reaction & UN Intervention
- The direction of North Korea became an Ideological Conflict, While US goverment became concerned with the Spread of Communism in China, Indo-China, Futher evidence of Communist spread.
- Truman authorised the sending of Air & Naval power to South Korea, While the UN called on North Korea to remove it's troops from the South.
- USA was able to dominate the UN and as a result, secured a commitment with 16 countrys to help 3 of which; Britain, Canda And Turkey. This commitment to Korea would also help the War Propaganda against Communism.
The Course Of The War
- North Korea pushed Southwards with great success, though despite the arival of US troops, North Korea continued to advance, While Communist Guriellas continued to attack South Korean troops.
- It was clear that the nature of the war was over the future development of the country.
- North Korea had now been out numberd by the full arival of US troops, and within days South Koreans were able to push the North Koreans back towards the 38th Parallel
Part 2:The Course Of The War
The UN Forces Push Into The North
- The US forces were to Superior that it appereard like North Korea were just disappearing as they forced them across the 38th Parallel.
- The USA then went to the UN to win apporval for conquering the North and reuniting Korea, Meanwhile, US foruces were already crossing the border.
....It seemer North Koreans were just melting away.
- Meanwhile, The govenments of the South began to root out Communist in the Government in a wave of violent excutions (Over 100,000).
- Marched onwards towards the Yalu River, which marked the division between China and Korea
Part 3:The Course Of The War
China Entry Into The War
- The Chinese became increasingly concerned with the attacks on Korea, So decided to send troops and supplys into North Korea.
- Chinese forces began to force into the border into North Korea with a new force of 350,000 troops, North Korea began to push UN troops into rapid reatreat.
- Recommandation of Nuclear bombs along the border to cut of supplys from China, this also caused great concern for Britain and Europe.
...Meanwhile, Back at home a national emergency was declared in the USA,
Wile the communist advanced carried on, North Koreans had retaken all land North of the 38th Paraell.
Part 4:The Course Of The War
- Early 1951 Communist forces began to push South of Seoul, This created Logical difficulties in Keeping supplys adduquite Porter wouldnt be able to keep going e.g. They were carrying equipment 200m to the front line.
- Extensive bombing raids of the North caused serious damage to everything, But still both sides seemed convinced tht they would win the war, By this time 30% of UN forces were focused on rooting out Guirella forces.
- In 1951 The UN launched 'Operation Rat Killer' Successfull but UN troops were starting to become very wary.
- Trueman sacked the general in April 1951 and was replaced by General Matthews Ridgeway, Under him the stalemate continued as did heavy bombing by both Air + Sea.
Part 4:The Course Of The War
Stalemate (Part 2)
- 'Operation Insomia' Was launched which involved Relentless UN bombing to exhast the population of the North.
...Finally, By July 1951, both sides were ready to open peace talks at Kaesong, and an agreement was reached over a democratic line between North and South.
The End Of The War
- 1952 Eisenhower had one the presidental elections again
Finally...by March 1953 a significant change of leadership in Russia when Stalin died, A new Soviet leadership occurred whom was willing to see an end to the war
- US soilders started to desert there stations in increasing numbers.
- And by July 1953 and armstice was finally agreed. China, North&South Korea + The USA signed the ceasefire.
However, South Korea originally refused to, but sought that they had little alternative, but to accept it.
What Were The Results Of The War
- The Korean War claimed well over 4 million lives.
- North Korea had prevented the West from destroying Communism in its half of the country; The West also saved South Koread from Communism.
Part 2:What Were The Results Of The War
- In this the war was a disaster for Korea
- 5 Million had been left homeless.
- Leader of Korea caught rigging his votes, which lead to his other throw.
- South Korean politics was to be dominated by military rule.
- North Korea became an isolated Communist Area
Part 3:What Were The Results Of The War
- It had shown it's military potential and had emerged as a third power alongside the USA and USSR
...However, Soviet unaction during the war led to a slum in the USSR
Part 4:What Were The Results Of The War
For The UN
- The UN had demonstrated the ability to exert its authority.
- Soviet propaganda was quick to point out, a tool of US policy.
Part 5:What Were The Results Of The War
For The USA
- It led to the remaining USA with a 3-fold increasing military Spending.
- The USA would now be ready to take on more Communist agression
- Needs to develop, and use a wider range of Stragies to help.
- After Korea, the situation in Vietnam provided an oppertunity to try out some of these new methods.