The Impacts of Global Warming-Africa

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  • Created by: Aisling
  • Created on: 08-05-13 20:24

The impacts of Global Warming-Africa

Background Information:

-55 countries

-2007, 2/3 were among the world's 50 poorest countries

-34% of population aged 15-24 was illterate

-Huge International Debt soars throughout the continent

EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING:

-Continent as a whole is 0.5C warmer than in 1990

-Temps have increased more in interior

-In Kericho, Kenya, max temps have increased by 3.5C since 1985

Caused: Increased Droughts, Unreliable Rainy Seasons, Localised rains

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Africa- Vulnerability

-African economies are heavily dependent on agriculture

-Farming is rain fed and vulnerable to water shortages

-Water is very scarce

-The UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME reported in 2007 reported that 14 countries were suffering from water scarcity

-11 more will join by 2032

-Rainfall is declining in areas that need it most

-The Sahara is to see reduction

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Africa-Vulnerability Problems

1) As rainfall becomes more variable- Competition arises- especially countries where the Nile flows through

e.g. Egypy built a dam called the ASWAN HIGH DAM. Drought in 1980s led to famine in Ethiopia + sudan but Egypt wasn not affected because of the water it stored in Lake Nasser. Conflict arises between these countries

2) As water scarcity increases- so does dependance on poor water quality- leads to water borne diseases e.g. cholera- puts pressure on health care systems + government budgets

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Africa- Physical Impacts

1) Africa contains 20% of all known species of plants, mammals + birds as well as 17% of amphibians + reptiles

As GW increases, fragile habitats may not survice and between 20-50% face EXTINCTION

 

2) LOW LYING COASTAL COUNTRIES are vulnerable to Sea Level Rise:

-Cities, roads + Infrastructure at risk from flooding + increased erosion

-Ghana, Togin, Benin are suffering greater eroision from increased storminess + human interference e.g. Port development + coastal defences

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Africa- Human Impacts

1) DEFORESTATION:

-Fertile land becomes unusable. It is a major problem in the Sahel

-This causes a decrease in agricultural which leads to poverty, unemployment, malnourishment + starvation

2) REDUCED GROWING PERIOD

-Decreases agricultural production

-In Sahel agriculture forms around 70% of employment, so reduction leads to UNEMPLOYMENT, POVERTY, MALNOURISHMENT + STARVATION

3) INCREASE IN MALERIA:

-Increased Humidity + Rainfall causes more Mosquitos

-In South Africa it is estimated that Malaria cases will rise from 5.2 million to 7.2 million. This puts pressure on Health Systems and means more are unable to work

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Africa- Global Warming and Debt

-Vulnerable due to their DEBT CRISIS

-One way in which Africa can reduce their debt is through the production of CASH CROPS

CASH CROPS= Crops sold for income rather then one's own food supply

-This has led to FOREST CLEARANCE for COMMERCIAL FARMING

OXFAM BELIEVES:

-GW is likely to result in even greater forest clearance

-Harser weather conditions e.g. drought will expose soild to eroision by wind

-This will place more pressure on existing land to grow food

-Over grazing leads to DESERTIFICATION

-FAMINE + MALNUTRITION will increase, placing Africa's FOOD SECURITY under threat

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