The Henrician Reformation - The key developments and its implications for royal power in England.

Henry's changing relations with the Catholic Church and the break with Rome; the role of Parliament in the early stages of the Reformation; the roles of Cranmer and Cromwell

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: JB16
  • Created on: 04-01-11 22:22

The Divorce

3.

Why did Henry want to end his marriage to Catherine of Aragon? (Main reason)

1 of 62

The Divorce

  • She did not produce a son to secure the Tudor dynasty.
  • She had a daughter Mary, but 5 other children died in infancy and after 1518 there were no more pregnancies.
2 of 62

The Divorce

3.

 

What made Henry feel that it was his marriage to Catherine   which was the reason he was not having a son?

3 of 62

The Divorce

  • Old Testement, Leviticus, Chapter 20, Verse 16
  • 
  • "If a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an impurity: he hath uncovered his brother's nakedness: they shall be childless.
  • Henry saw this as proof that his marriage to Catherine was invalid.
  • He thought that by granting the dispensation, Pope Julias II had gone beyond his authority.
  • He gradually convinced himself that no papal dispensation would be able to overcome the biblical ban on marrying a dead brother's wife.
4 of 62

The Divorce

3.

How can we tell that Henry's thought on the reason why Catherine was not able to have a son (Old Testement, Leviticus, Chapter 20, Verse 16) was a reason that Henry was actually convinced by?

5 of 62

The Divorce

  • Some scholars had assured the King that the original Hebrew said "without sons".
  • 
  • The case was not very strong, many argued that the intention was while the brother was still living (supported by an Old Testement text from the book of Deuteronomy).
  • Henry's case depended on Catherine's first marriage to Arthur having not being consumated and Catherine swore publicaly and privately that it had not been.
  • (Answer) Even with all of this information, Henry still kept to his case regardless of the fact that there was an alternative argument which was brought foward to Henry's attention by Wolsey, which was much simpler. This argument was based on the technicality of Catherine and Arthurs' ceremony which had set up an impediment to her re-marriages, and Henry needed a different sort of dispensation to marry her. The king refused this argument, and still proceeded with his initial argument.
6 of 62

The Divorce

3.

What made Henry want the divorce even more? And why? (Who came into the picture?)

7 of 62

The Divorce

  • Anne Boleyn
  • She held out against the King's sexual wishes, saying that she would only accept them if they were married.
  • Henry's infactuation over her grew.
8 of 62

The Divorce

3.

Who was given the job of securing the divorce?

9 of 62

The Divorce

Wolsey

10 of 62

The Divorce

3.

Did granting the divorce go smoothly?

What events occurd?

Comment on:

  • Henry's initial thoughts
  • Wolsey's initial confidence/ not confidence
  • Catherine's cooperation
11 of 62

The Divorce

  • Initially Henry must have thought that the action taken would be straightfoward and a guarenteed success.
  • 
  • Wolsey was confident. He was one of the most influential men in the church and was owed many favours by men who adised the Pope on matters of policy.
  • Such annulments were relatively common. (The Duke of Suffolk had required one to legalise his marriage with Henry's sister Mary.
  • The Pope had every reason to please the ruler of a country whose dupport he often sought in his diplomatic manouverings.
  • Catherine did NOT cooperate.
  • She sent an appeal to the Pope and her nephew Charles , Holy Roman Emperor, who had the Pope as his prisoner. Charles had invaded Rome and captured him in June 1527.
  • This was exceedingly bad for Henry's case as the Pope may now not grant the divorce because his capturer may want to go by his Aunt's wishes.
12 of 62

The Divorce

3.

What did Wolsey do when he found out that the Pope was a prisoner of Charles V?

Comment on what he wanted to do with the help of this ally. (There's a hint!)

13 of 62

The Divorce

  • Wolsey started negotiating with the French.
  • Henry had already signed a Treaty with Francis I
  • Henry and Wolsey wanted:
  • French support in the divorce case
  • To support Francis in his campaigns against Charles
  • Possibly get Pope Clement's agreement to Wolsey runing the Church on his behalf during his imprisonment.
14 of 62

The Divorce

3.

(A). Which Pope granted Henry and Catherine their papal dispensation?

(B). Who was the Pope at the time of the divorce?

15 of 62

The Divorce

(A). Pope Julius II

(B). Pope Clement

16 of 62

The Divorce

3.

What events occurd whilst Wolsey was away trying to secure the divorce?

(Whilst he was in France)

17 of 62

The Divorce

  • Anne Boleyn and her faction had been advancing and making arguments against Wolsey.
  • Anne and Wolsey were past enemies.
  • Henry began taking action without consulting Wolsey.
  • He sent messages to the Pope and discussed policy with leading councillors such as the Duke of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Viscount Rochford, Anne's father.
  • However, this had little effect and Wolsey still seemed to be the man most likely to negotiate the divorce.
18 of 62

The Divorce

3.

What happened, which was considered a breakthrough in the divorce case? 

An agreement made by the Pope in 1528 (Hint)

19 of 62

The Divorce

  • In 1528 the Pope appeard to agree with a final agreement being made in England.
  • The judgement would be reached by two papal legates Cardinal Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggio.
20 of 62

The Divorce

3.

Who were the two papal legates who were to come up with the final agreement in England about the divorce?

21 of 62

The Divorce

1. Cardinal Wolsey

2. Cardinal Campeggio

22 of 62

The Divorce

3.

What were the events which happened in the decision of the divorce by the two papal legates?

Comment on:

The things which seemed to be good.

The things which went wrong.

23 of 62

The Divorce

  • It seemed good for the English cause because Wolsey had worked with Campeggio in discussing the Treaty of London.
  • Campeggio was in Henry's pay as the absentee Bishop of Sailsbury, looking after English interests in Curia.
  • However: Campeggio took his time coming as he was poor of health, so the journey which had been requested was unwelcome.
  • He had frequent breaks and worsened the King's temper.
  • Wolsey was blamed for every delay.
  • Campeggio delayed meetings once in London.
  • The fact that he was being paid to work in England's interests appeared to be of no significance, his only motive seemed to be to carry out the Pope's wishes.
  • Work on the case was suspended in July 1529 without a decision being made.
  • Campeggio was thought to not be prepared to make a decision one way or the other.
  • The Pope then decided that the case must be heard in Rome.
24 of 62

The Divorce

3.

Mention some "blows" to the divorce case.

25 of 62

The Divorce

  • The Pope's decision on the case having to be heard in Rome after Cardinal Campeggio failed to reach a decision in England.
  • When letters from Henry and Anne Boleyn were found and taken to Rome saying that he would make her his Queen once he got the divorce. This was strong evidence which showed that Henry's lust was the main reason behind his desire for an annulment.
  • In Augist the Treaty of Cambria brought Francis, Charles and the Pope together as allies. This destroyed any remaining illusion that the Pope might view the divorce with sympathy.
26 of 62

The Divorce - Wolsey's failure

3.

Give an account of Wolsey's failure in the King's Great Matter.

27 of 62

The Divorce - Wolsey's failure

  • The decision by the Pope to have the case heard in Rome meant that Wolsey had failed in the King's Great Matter.
  • The King began to believe the arguments that Anne Boylen and her faction had been advancing for many months - ( the King's cheif minister was responsible for the lack of action as were the men in Rome).
  • In October he was dismissed from Lord Chancellorship and was allowed to Withdraw to his dioces of York.
  • He was arrested for treason in November 1530 as evidence emerged that he was still communicating with the French and emperial agents
  • He died at leicester Abbey on his way to London to face the charges.
28 of 62

The Divorce

3.

Who became Henry's "new Wolsey"?

29 of 62

The Divorce

  • Thomas Cromwell
  • Now came... The REFORMATION!!!!!
30 of 62

The Reformation

3.

What happened after "The King's Great Matter" was adjourned by the Pope?

(You'll be rlllly good to get this one!)

31 of 62

The Reformation

  • Writs were issued for Parliament to meet in Novemeber.
  • It was the first of 7 sessions of the Reformation Parliament.
  • It is still unsure why Henry summoned Parliament at this point.
  • The timing of the writs implied the summons to Parliament was linked with the failure to get a divorce and that Henry hoped to make a new beginning with the help of his subjects.
32 of 62

The Reformation

3.

What did Thomas Cranmer suggest should be done?

Hint: Universities

What was the result?

33 of 62

The Reformation

  • Thomas Cranmer suggested that royal agents should be sent to universities across Europe to win backing for the King's cause, additionally to the work being done of his behalf in Oxford and Cambridge in early 1530.
  • Some universities came out in favour especially the more radical swiss reformers but the majority of Lutheran theologians in Germany maintained the validity of his marriage.
34 of 62

The Reformation

3.

What gave Henry the idea that he need not recognize any superior on earth? E.g. Pope, Emperor in his country and it was his duty to be head of the Church?

Who gave him possession of this item?

Why had he not seen it before?

What was Henry's reaction - Extra*

35 of 62

The Reformation

  • A book by William Tyndale about Christianity.
  • He set out the view that the ruler was supreme on earth and completely in charge.
  • Anne Boleyn got hold of a copy for Henry to read.
  • The book was banned in England because of the heresies it contained.
  • Henry was impressed and announed "This book is for me and all Kings to read!"
36 of 62

The Reformation - The Submission of the Clergy

3.

On 15th May Convocation gave way and the Submission of the Clergy was passed.

What were some of the terms of the Submission?

Definitions:

  • Convocation: A representative assembly of clergy of the province of Canterbury or York.
  • Submission: The action or fact of submitting
37 of 62

The Reformation - The Submission of the Clergy

Terms of the Submission:

  • Convocation could only meet at the King's demands.
  • Convocation could ennact no ecclesiastical legislation without royal consent.
  • Royal assent was to be sought for existing legislation.
38 of 62

The Reformation - The Submission of the Clergy

3.

The Submission of the Clergy was a definate attack on the independence of the Church and Papal authority.

Who thought that Henry was going to far, and what happened?

39 of 62

The Reformation - The Submission of the Clergy

  • Thomas More
  • He saw this as a turning point.
  • He resigned as Lord Chancellor on the 16th May.
  • He was in favour of moderate reform, but could not accept the King's policy when it threatened to split the universal Church.
40 of 62

The Reformation - Thomas Cranmer

3.

Give some information about Thomas Cranmer.

41 of 62

The Reformation - Thomas Cranmer

  • Thomas Cranmer
  • First became involved with the King when he and a few others recommended, when the King was seeking his annulment that he should seel the opinions of university theologians accross Europe rather than lawyers. (This would gain him foreign support).
  • Entered royal service in 1530.
  • Was summoned Archbishop of Canturbey in 1533. When William Warham died, Henry was able to choose his own Archbishop. He chose Cranmer as he expected Cranmer would support all his policies.
  • He showed an interest in Protestantism
  • Always tried to implement Protestant reform but was limited by Henry's boundaries.
  • Henry would have known about Cranmer's sympathies but tolerated them.
  • According to Cromwell, Henry never believed ill of Cranmer, whatever accusations were made against him.
  • Henry interveened when Cranmer's enemies were attempting to charge him with heresy.
  • It was Cranmer's hand which Henry clasped when he was dying.
  • When Edward became king, Cranmer was able to establsih a truly Protestant nation in England.
  • He was found guilty of heresy in Mary's reign.
42 of 62

The Reformation

3.

Who was it who finally declared that Henry's marriage to Catherine was never true?

Who did he say he was now married to (they married in secret)?

Was she pregnant?

If yes, did she have a baby? What was its gender/ name?

What year did this happen in?

43 of 62

The Reformation

  • Thomas Cranmer (These actions had directly challanged the Pope. In the years 1533-6 all links with Rome and England were broken. This was not easy as it took Henry a long time to believe that he could revolutionise the relationship between church and state.
  • Anne Boleyn
  • Yes, By January 1535 she knew she was pregnant, and had it in September 1535.
  • Yes, September 1535, Girl (to Henry's disappointment), Elizabeth
  • 1535
44 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

3.

Do you think that Henry originally set out to break with Rome?

Why do you think that it eventually happened?

45 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

  • The break with Rome would not have been easy as it took Henry a long time to believe that he could revolutionise the relationship between the Curch and State.
  • However, as it happened in stages, (his initial plan had not been breaking with Rome) events just followed each other.
  • Some historians' argue that "the divorce was the occasion rather than the cause of the ending of papal power in England, and that (by implication at least) it ould have happened about the same time whether or not Henry had had marital problems to resolve" - Elton.
46 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

3.

Who carried out the official Break with Rome?

Give some information about him.

47 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

  • Thomas Cromwell
  • By 1531 he was a member of the King's council and by 1534 became the King's secrater and Master of the Rolls
  • He was now at the center of affaires.
48 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

3.

There were a series of Acts of Parliament which brought about the financial independence of the church of England from papal authority.  

Mention the acts which occurd in 1533.

49 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

April 1533

  • The Act in Restraint of Appeals (The Act of Appeals) - No appeals were to be made from England to Rome in matters concerning wills, marriages, or payments to the church. The furtherst they could go would be the Archbishop. This act made it possible for Cranmer to decide the King's case at Dunstable (when Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon was said to have never happened) and may have been active preparation for the Act that partly decided the consummation of Henry's realtionship with Anne.
50 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

3.

There were a series of Acts of Parliament which brought about the financial independence of the church of England from papal authority.  

Mention the acts which occurd in 1534.

51 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

March 1534

  • Act of Dispensations - No payments to Rome, any dispensations that may have come from Rome were to be issued by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Act of Submission of the Clergy - repeated details of the submission of 1532.
  • First succession Act - First succession lay with the heirs of Anne Boleyn, then any other wife, after Elizabeth and her children, then any other daughters that might be born. Subjects had to take an oath accepting these rules and legitimacy of the King's marriage to Anne Boleyn. Any words against the king or title or marriage would be accounted high treason.

November 1534

  • Act of Supremacy - Henry was supreme head of the church
  • Treason Act - It was high treason to threaten Henry, Anne or his heirs in words, writing or deeds to deny him his titles or to acuse him of being a heretic, tyrant or usurper.
  • Act of first fruits and Tenths - First year income from church office and a tenth of all clerical income would be paid to the King.
52 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

3.

There were a series of Acts of Parliament which brought about the financial independence of the church of England from papal authority.  

Mention the acts which occurd in 1536.

53 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

1536

  • The process was rounded off with the Act against Papal Authority which removed any form of authority the Pope might have had even in matters of heresy.
54 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

3.

Why did Henry attack Papal authority like a piecemeal (stage by stage)?

55 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome

  • Henry attacked papal authority like this, stage by stage, because he did not set out to break with Rome. The events just followed one after the other like a piecemeal.
56 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome - Opposition

3.

What opposition did Henry and his council forsee during The Reformation?

57 of 62

The Reformation - The Break with Rome - Opposition

  • Elizabeth Barton - the "Nun of Kent" - prophesised that should Henry go along with the divorce, he would cease to be king - eventually executed.
  • The Bishops of England - Many had been intimidated by Henry and therefore did not oppose. Additionally many had been replaced with more "reliable" men who had degrees in law and not theology, and were the King's servants.
  • John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester - The senior and most respected of English Bishops by 1529. He did not believe what Henry was doing was right, but both sides wanted him.
  • He supported Catherine, speaking constantly on her behalf.
  • He refused to be silenced despite threats and secretly appealed to Charles V for armed intervention. He refused to swear the oath of succession and was arrested and executed in 1535. He had been made Cardinal by the Pope and his excecution created most outrage amongst the people.
  • Catherine of Aragon - She was popular throughout Henry's quest for a divorce. She had refused to accept Henry's wishes and fought for the rights of herself and her daughter. The Act of Succession declared Mary a ******* and she was greeted enthusiastically in public unlike Anne (the goggle-eyed whore), Henry celebrated her death in 1536 by dressing in yellow.
  • Thomas More - succeeded Wolsey as Lord Chancellor, resigned after the Submission of the clergy, was forced to swear an Act, remained in silence, was executed in 1535 for remaining silent.
58 of 62

The Reformation - Opposition

3.

Was there a lot of opposition to the Break with Rome?

What are reasons for this?

59 of 62

The Reformation - Opposition

There was little opposition:

  • Some Protestant writers took this as an indication of seeming indifference amongst the population. That there was low Christian commitmment in England and Wales in 1530. However this is the Tradtitional View.
  • A more modern view is that Cromwell made it virtually impossible for major opposition to form.
  • The Reformation occurd in stages, so it was difficult to say at which point to jolt the Reformation.
  • Additionally, this was not the first time the King had quarreled with the Pope. Many believed that once the divorce problem had been solved things would go back to normal.
  • Opposition would bring about greatly feared disorder.
  • Henry was the annointed King, people were expected to follow him.
  • The Act of Treason intimidated people and made them afraid to rebel.
  • Because it happened in stages, people did not realise what was happening. When you look at Henry's moves alone they do not seem strong enough to rebel against but taken as a whole the significance is evident.
  • The vast majority of people were too busy with their own lives to look out for what was going on with the church.
60 of 62

The Reformation - Opposition

3.

Was there much support for The Reformation?

61 of 62

The Reformation - Opposition

Although there was limited opposition, there was also limited support in The Reformation's early stages.

  • Protestants were appointed in key positions, but across the country there were few.
  • Many of those who had campaigned for Reform of the church, such as Thomas More, became one of its greatest defenders when it came under attack.
  • There did not seem to be any real movement one way or the other until, the reformation directly affected people with the dissolution of the monasteries. 
62 of 62

Comments

Rachel Wahnon

well done! very helpful :)

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts resources »