The Hapsburg-Valois Wars

The wars between Spain and France.

HideShow resource information

Background- why was there a power struggle?

  • Dynastic reasons
    • France had bee at conflict with Spain since 1494, they were only continuing the rivalry
    • They both had dynastic claims; Charles wanted Burgundy in France, Flanders and Artois
    • Charles was king of Aragon and inherited naples, which Valois also wanted
  • Personal reasons
    • Francis was jealous of Charles becoming HRE and his 'claims to supremacy'
    • they were similar ages
  • Strategic Reasons
    • France had an expansionist foreign policy
    • France was encircled by Hapsburg territories; netherlands, Germany, Spain
    • Both wanted Milan, France for power and Charles so he could travel safely(Spanish Road). Milan conected HRE with South Italy.
1 of 10

1521-1529

  • 1516:
    • Treaty of Noyene, Charles promised Navarre and Milan to France but he kept postphoning restoration of Navarre
  • 1520:
    • rumours of french attack on Navarre
    • Charles was creating an alliance with HEnry VIII
  • 1521:
    • French attack Navarre, Charles struck back, helped by former rebels and held Navarre for the rest of his reign
    • Charles' advisor Chievres de Croy dies, he had wand peace with france. Replaced by the more agressive Gattinara
    • A joint Hapsburg and papal army drove the french out of Milan in November
    • Charles regained Tournai
  • 1522:
    • French repelled in Milan
    • french armies defeated at Biocca and other French garrisons surrendered
2 of 10

1521-1529

    • Duke of Bourbon unexpectedly switched sides, promised to lead Hapsburg armies against the French. Henry VIII also promised to attack calais
  • 1523:
    • Francis under triple attack
    • However the campaigns failed; the english advance was half hearted and overall it as badly co-ordinated
    • This boosted French morale
    • The new pope Clement III was concerned about Haps dominance in Italy, so venice and Florence allied with France.
    • French armies took back Milan and made it to naples in the south. charles was devestated by this role reversal.
  • 1525:
    • French were laying siege to pavia, so Charles ent troops to help the trapped spanish.
    • Francis thought he could beat c but he was overwhelmed
    • F taken prisoner back to Madrid
3 of 10

1521-1529

    • C takes a year deciding his demands;
      • Bourbon's lands and safety guaranteed
      • Francis to renounce claims to Flanders,Tournai and Artois
      • Francis to marry charles' sister
      • go on a joint crusade
    • eventually lets him go wit his 2 sons as a hostage. Howevr, F does not keepto his promise.
    • Why didn't the treaty lead to peace?
      • signed under duress
      • Henry VIII angry he wasn't included
      • pope scared of charles' power
      • Anti-Hapsburg league
  • 1527:
    • the sack of rome
    • riots, ****, murder in the holy city
    • unintended, no-one in control, christendom was horrified
4 of 10

1521-1529

  • 1529:
    • The Battle of Landriano
    • French armies defeated trying to take Milan again
    • Charles once more master of Italy
    • Peace treaty- treaty of cambrai or 'the ladies peace'
      • Same reult as at madrid but charles lost burgundy and Bourbon was dead
      • 2 sons returned for 2 million gold crowns.
    • Treaty of Barcelona
      • between C and the pope
      • the pope recognised C as the King of Naples and agreed to medicis being restored in Florence and Sforzas in Milan
      • Pope agreed to crown Charles as HRE
      • Charles' highest point.
5 of 10

1529-1544

  • Francis felt dishonoured and wanted to restore the balance of power in Europe
  • Francis approached Henry 8 and german protestants and created a marriage alliance with the pope's niece
  • 1535:
    • When Charles captured Tunis, he found evidence that f was conspiring with the Ottoman Sultan.
    • Sforzas died and charles decided to take Milan (to F this was against the treaty of cambrai)
  • 1536:
    • in retaliation F sent troops into Piedmont and Savoy, his troops captured Turin(these places remained french til 1559)
    • neither side had great victories and by 1538 deadlock was reached, neither side had resources
6 of 10

1529-1544

    • They signed a 10 year truce, but it was unresolved and there was no satisfactory conclusion about Milan
  • 1540:
    • charles gave Philip the duchy of Milan
  • 1541:
    • charles had problems with the Ps in germany and Muslim pirates.
    • 2 of francis' envoys were murdered in milan and F blamed Charles and declared war.
    • The war lasted 1542-44, it was muddles and ended in stalemate.
  • 1542 :
    • French captured nice and took fortress of Luxembourg with D of Cleves
    • Charles beat off french attacks in Milan and catalonia and Netherlands
    • Henry VIII agreed to support charles
    • also the french ottoman alliance shocked christendom so charles recieved lots of support
7 of 10

1544-1559

  • 1544:
    • Charles and Henry invaded france, however, Henry was selfish and concentrated on his own neeeds, Boulogne
    • also Charles couldn't pay his troop
    • Treaty of Crepy
    • Charles kept Italy
    • F's younger son to marry hapsburg princess
    • end of F-O alliance
    • H8 got boulogne for 8 yrs and a pension
    • F wouldn't intervene at Muhlberg.
    • Grievances of france stil unmet after the ToC
  • 1547:
    • Charles had a victory at Muhlberg
    • Francis died and Henry II is king( hated Charles because he'd been his captive)
    • peace maintained til 50s so h2 could establish himself
8 of 10

1544-1559

  • 1552:
    • H2 concluded treaty of chambord with the schmalkaldic league
    • He would support them and they gave him metz, toul and Verdun
    • Paul IV elected pope, he was anti-hapsburg and alied himself with H
    • Charles marched to Metz and failed to regain it. took 6 months and cost millions. A turning point in the hV wars
  • 1553:
    • Mary T in England, she marries philip in 1554, france is now encircled.
  • 1554:
    • C sucesfully defends Ntherlands in his last campaign but he had no more desire to fignt.
  • 1555:
    • Charles abdicates
    • Philip and H have treaty of vaucelle '56, but war continued to '59
9 of 10

1544-1559

  • In retirement Charles still wanted revenge
  • he urged spaina nd netherlands to help
  • french fears were relaxed when Charles divided his lands
  • Then mary T dies in 1558, which ended the anglo-spanish alliance
  • P and H could no longer afford war, therefore they had the treaty of Cateau Cambresis 1559:
    • valois renounced claims to artois, Tournai, Flanders and Navarre
    • V returned savoy to the D of Savoy
    • Hapsburg possession of Milan and Naples confirmed
    • P2 married daughter of H2
    • this treaty survived a century and peace lasted 30 years.
10 of 10

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all British monarchy - Tudors and Stuarts resources »