Background- why was there a power struggle?
- Dynastic reasons
- France had bee at conflict with Spain since 1494, they were only continuing the rivalry
- They both had dynastic claims; Charles wanted Burgundy in France, Flanders and Artois
- Charles was king of Aragon and inherited naples, which Valois also wanted
- Personal reasons
- Francis was jealous of Charles becoming HRE and his 'claims to supremacy'
- they were similar ages
- Strategic Reasons
- France had an expansionist foreign policy
- France was encircled by Hapsburg territories; netherlands, Germany, Spain
- Both wanted Milan, France for power and Charles so he could travel safely(Spanish Road). Milan conected HRE with South Italy.
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- Treaty of Noyene, Charles promised Navarre and Milan to France but he kept postphoning restoration of Navarre
- rumours of french attack on Navarre
- Charles was creating an alliance with HEnry VIII
- French attack Navarre, Charles struck back, helped by former rebels and held Navarre for the rest of his reign
- Charles' advisor Chievres de Croy dies, he had wand peace with france. Replaced by the more agressive Gattinara
- A joint Hapsburg and papal army drove the french out of Milan in November
- Charles regained Tournai
- French repelled in Milan
- french armies defeated at Biocca and other French garrisons surrendered
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- Duke of Bourbon unexpectedly switched sides, promised to lead Hapsburg armies against the French. Henry VIII also promised to attack calais
- Francis under triple attack
- However the campaigns failed; the english advance was half hearted and overall it as badly co-ordinated
- This boosted French morale
- The new pope Clement III was concerned about Haps dominance in Italy, so venice and Florence allied with France.
- French armies took back Milan and made it to naples in the south. charles was devestated by this role reversal.
- French were laying siege to pavia, so Charles ent troops to help the trapped spanish.
- Francis thought he could beat c but he was overwhelmed
- F taken prisoner back to Madrid
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- C takes a year deciding his demands;
- Bourbon's lands and safety guaranteed
- Francis to renounce claims to Flanders,Tournai and Artois
- Francis to marry charles' sister
- go on a joint crusade
- eventually lets him go wit his 2 sons as a hostage. Howevr, F does not keepto his promise.
- Why didn't the treaty lead to peace?
- signed under duress
- Henry VIII angry he wasn't included
- pope scared of charles' power
- Anti-Hapsburg league
- C takes a year deciding his demands;
- the sack of rome
- riots, ****, murder in the holy city
- unintended, no-one in control, christendom was horrified
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- The Battle of Landriano
- French armies defeated trying to take Milan again
- Charles once more master of Italy
- Peace treaty- treaty of cambrai or 'the ladies peace'
- Same reult as at madrid but charles lost burgundy and Bourbon was dead
- 2 sons returned for 2 million gold crowns.
- Treaty of Barcelona
- between C and the pope
- the pope recognised C as the King of Naples and agreed to medicis being restored in Florence and Sforzas in Milan
- Pope agreed to crown Charles as HRE
- Charles' highest point.
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- Francis felt dishonoured and wanted to restore the balance of power in Europe
- Francis approached Henry 8 and german protestants and created a marriage alliance with the pope's niece
- When Charles captured Tunis, he found evidence that f was conspiring with the Ottoman Sultan.
- Sforzas died and charles decided to take Milan (to F this was against the treaty of cambrai)
- in retaliation F sent troops into Piedmont and Savoy, his troops captured Turin(these places remained french til 1559)
- neither side had great victories and by 1538 deadlock was reached, neither side had resources
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- They signed a 10 year truce, but it was unresolved and there was no satisfactory conclusion about Milan
- charles gave Philip the duchy of Milan
- charles had problems with the Ps in germany and Muslim pirates.
- 2 of francis' envoys were murdered in milan and F blamed Charles and declared war.
- The war lasted 1542-44, it was muddles and ended in stalemate.
- 1542 :
- French captured nice and took fortress of Luxembourg with D of Cleves
- Charles beat off french attacks in Milan and catalonia and Netherlands
- Henry VIII agreed to support charles
- also the french ottoman alliance shocked christendom so charles recieved lots of support
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- Charles and Henry invaded france, however, Henry was selfish and concentrated on his own neeeds, Boulogne
- also Charles couldn't pay his troop
- Treaty of Crepy
- Charles kept Italy
- F's younger son to marry hapsburg princess
- end of F-O alliance
- H8 got boulogne for 8 yrs and a pension
- F wouldn't intervene at Muhlberg.
- Grievances of france stil unmet after the ToC
- Charles had a victory at Muhlberg
- Francis died and Henry II is king( hated Charles because he'd been his captive)
- peace maintained til 50s so h2 could establish himself
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- H2 concluded treaty of chambord with the schmalkaldic league
- He would support them and they gave him metz, toul and Verdun
- Paul IV elected pope, he was anti-hapsburg and alied himself with H
- Charles marched to Metz and failed to regain it. took 6 months and cost millions. A turning point in the hV wars
- Mary T in England, she marries philip in 1554, france is now encircled.
- C sucesfully defends Ntherlands in his last campaign but he had no more desire to fignt.
- Charles abdicates
- Philip and H have treaty of vaucelle '56, but war continued to '59
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- In retirement Charles still wanted revenge
- he urged spaina nd netherlands to help
- french fears were relaxed when Charles divided his lands
- Then mary T dies in 1558, which ended the anglo-spanish alliance
- P and H could no longer afford war, therefore they had the treaty of Cateau Cambresis 1559:
- valois renounced claims to artois, Tournai, Flanders and Navarre
- V returned savoy to the D of Savoy
- Hapsburg possession of Milan and Naples confirmed
- P2 married daughter of H2
- this treaty survived a century and peace lasted 30 years.
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