The Fuhrer and the Vozhd- The Nazi-Soviet Pact

Preparing for War

Hitler becomes Chancellor in 1933

Anti-Comintern Pact 1936-7 between Germany, Japan and Italy

Stalin's responce:

Reforming the Military

International Espionage

Economic Preparation

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Reforming the Military

1935- Military discipline in the Red Army tightened

Stalin reintroduced Tsarist system of strict discipline and clear divisions between officers and men

1937-8-Red Army extensively purged- loss of military skill and experience

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International Espionage

Advantages- Large network of Spies: communist sympathisers at all level of government in UK, France and Germany, willingly providing secret information

Disadvantages- much of the information was never analysed due to Stalin's refusal to trust intelligence service, also for most of the 1930's, Russia intelligence resources focused on the hunt for Trotsky

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Economic Preparation

Rearmament essential part of the 3rd FYP

Problems: -Purges led to chaos in government departments
-administration worked on drafts of plans
-little detail on how to achieve
-no agreed budget for military spending
-17 departments argued with Gosplan over money allocated to war production

estimated defence spending (roubles)
FYP= 366 million  SYP= 2080 million  TYP= 4200 million

Successes: -1939, 6 aircraft factories, 24 explosives factories
-total number of tanks produced 1942 twice that of 1938
-Russian war preparation compared favourably with Germans

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The Nazi- Soviet Pact, A surprising alliance?

Mein Kampt 1925- talks badly about Communists

Spanish Civil War 1936-9- Hitler fought against Communism

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Why did Stalin sign the Nazi-Soviet Pact?

1. No viable alternative- Britian and France not interested, japan was a threat

2. Robert Service agrued Stalin was 'buying time' the Red Army was not ready until 1943

3. Follow Lenin- 1920 urged German Communist to form alliance with German facists overthrowing government

4. Stalin admired Hitler- Strong, decisive leader

5. Wanted to recapture European territory; belonged to Tsar. One month after signing Stalin overthrown govermments of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. 1940 Red Army attacks Finland

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Would Stalin honour the Pact?

Hitler's military success- Conquered Poland in less than a month
-By mid- 1940 overrun France and Holland, forced British troops out of Europe

Failure of the Red Army- Finland

After Purges, needed time to rebuild military- believed pact could keep Russia safe until May 1942

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