Definitions of Muslim Groups
ABBASIDS-Caliphs of Baghdad, they created the Turkish army of Mamluks who were later overthrown by the seljul turks
FATAMIDS-Shia dynasty challenged the Abbasid Caliphs- caused Shia/Sunni split. They were tolerant.By 1080's the were contesting Syria and Palestine with the Seljuks.
SELJUK TURKS- Migrated from Central Asia to Persia. Adopted Persan language and customs. Captured Baghdad in 1055 from the Abbasids- Led by Alp Arslan.
Events before the Crusade
Battle of Manzikert- August 1071 - Byzantine Emperor= Romanus IV.
Andronikas-enemy of Byzantine leader, commited treachary.
Alp Arslan- Seljuk Sultan- released Romanus- who was later blinded and excommunicated.
Events Leading up to the Crusade and Definitons
1071-1081-Turks began occupying the countryside of Anatolia.
Constantine-Papacy claimed this gave then authority over Western Europe
Dictiatus Papae-Asserted papal rights
Great Schism- 1054- over Eastern and Western Christians- Greek and Latin rite
Council of Piacenza- March 1095- Alexius I sent embassy to the oope asking for help.
Council of Claremont- November 1095, Peoples crusade/German-1096
EUROPE TO CONSTANTINOPLE
August 1096 to April 1097. Army split into three. Godfrey and Baldwin arrived first then Raymond and last Bohemond. riund 30-50,000 crusaders.
-Arrived in Constantinople and wanted help from Emperor Alexius I. He would give then supplies and passage into Asia inor if they swore an oath to him to give him any land recovered from the turks.
Godfrey took the oath first which incouraged others.
Raymond didnt take the oath- promised to not cause any damage to Byzantium empire.
SEIGE OF NICAEA
Niceaea- Capital of Rúm ruled by Alp Arslan
Crusaders crossed Asia Minor in early 1097
Alexius sent Manuel Boutoumides and Taticius and Byzantium ships to aid
Arslan was away frighting the Danishmends and by the time he ruturned it was too late- Nicaea fell to the crusaders.
BATTLE OF DORYLAEUM
Taticius brought Byzantium troops
Divided the armies into 2 so they were easily manageable- 1 leds by Normans and 1 led by French
-July 1st Normans were attacked, good military skills caused the Turks to flee
They went through Anatolia in the middle of summer- many losses
Leader disputes- Baldwin of Boulogne set off alone and captured land and refuse to give it to Alexius I thus creating Edessa- first Crusader state in 1098
SEIGE TO ANTIOCH
October 1097-June 1098-lasted 8 months, the crusaders blockaded the city.. they had to defeat two armies of Duqaq and Ridwan.
May 1098 Kerbogha of Mosul arrived to relieve the siege.
Bohemond bribed Firuz to open the tower, they entered city.
They became trapped in the city and moral was low until Peter Bartholomew claimed to have found the Holy Lance which peirced Jesus' skin on the cross.
This gave crusaders a boost of moral and they defeated Kerbogha in June 1098..August 1098 Plague broke out and killed the legate Adhemar on 1st August. Meanwhile crusader leaders quarrled amongst themselves.
1099- army threatened to leave leaders unless they stopped arguing, marched renewed but Bohemond stayed and became first Prince of Antioch.
JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM
-Army was smaller- as Baldwin was in Edessa and Bohemond and troops in Antioch
-Godfrey and Robert joined the crusade at Arqah but the town refused to surrender- 13th May the crusaders left it and moved on.
SIEGE OF JERUSALEM
-7th June marhed to Jerusalem- people wept upon seeing the city. They couldnt blockade it as there was little to no relief and so an attack was going to have to be done, 12000 approx. remained.
-13th June crusaders repulsed back from inner wall. Peter Desiderius claimed to have a vison instructing the crusaders to amrch barefoot outside the city ad the walls would fall- this failed.
-13th July Raymonds troops attacked the Southern wall whist other focused on other areas.
-15t July- inner rampart of the Northern wall was captured and the crusaders entered the city atlast.