The first Civil War

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Parliamentary Forces lead by the Earl Of Essex

The Earl of Essex

Had military expierence as he had commanded a regiment in the Netherlands during the 30 years War.

He carried his own coffin into battle - not very reassuring to his troops

Supported peace

Never was sure about raising an army against the King

Lost 6000 men at Lostwithiel as prisoners

This man is a reason why the war lasted so long

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Main Battles

Edgehill october 1642 Warrickshire

Adwalton Moor June 1643 

Marston Moor July 1644 just outside York

Naseby June 1645 on the way to Cambridge

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Prince Rupert

Prince Rupert

German Nephew of the King

fought in the Thirty years war

Brilliant cavelry leader

lost control of cavelry at Naseby and edgehill

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First pitched Battle of the war

Essex withdrew and left the way to London free (Royalists didn't go quick enough) -reason why they lost?

Londoners built defences before Royalists arrived

Essex gathered 24000 to help defend the capital

Royalists went to Oxford

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Newcastle on at Adwalton moor and gained controll of Northen England

Both sides needed more men  (help) 
              - cessation treaty
              - the Solem league and covenant 


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Martson Moor july 1644

Roylists trapped 

King lost the North and York surrenederd toParliament 

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Why did the war last so long?

Digby discredited Rupert and Rupert went

Essex and Manchester made their own decisions and were more negotiable

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New Model Army

created by Thomas Fairfax

cromwell in charge of cavelry

Another key commander was Henry Ireton (Cromwell's son-in-law) who was appointed by merit

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