Causes of the Boer War
Conflicting political ideology:
- Boers want to stay independent
- British 'want to unite control'
Tenstion between political leaders:
- Rose- Worried about economic power Transval.
- Kruger- President of Transval
The Uitlander Franchise:-
- Voting rights
- Causes train between Utalnder and Britain
- Had to be in the country for 14 years, in order to reamin in control.
Causes of the Boer War Part 2
The Jameson Raid:
Began 29th total failure and had no support British colony that would join all the other colonies Take advantage of the drif crisis and support armed uprisings. The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand:
- South africa became the single gold producer
- Prospectors streamed in.
- Transval fear they're out number
The Army of 1899
- Very small
- Server discipline
- Poorly trained- outdated tactics.
- Army wore Khaki and armed with morden Lee-Metford rifles.
- Private soldiers drawn from poorest in societ, urban unemployee's
- Poor pay
- Reguarly Food (3 sqaure meals aday)
- Officers still drawn from upper classes.
Reporting the Boer War
Wounded soilders Pitched battles. Proud/ undeafted British soilders. Glorifying. Daily male:
- National press, had wide appeal
- Founded 1996
- Simple, targeted masses.
- Very patriotic
Reporting the Boer War Part 2
Reads like a novel War is on adventure. Poetic Detailed. Public opinion:
- Demand for information.
- Community spirit.
- Reads like a novel.
- British victory.
- Vague, lacking detail
The Reforms Acts
Free school meals (1906)
The Childrens Act (1908)
- Prosuctions for cruelity to children.
- Social suffers essiantially.
- All childrens home were regestered and investigated.
- Children under 14 could not be sent to adult prisons.
- Juvienile courts set up.
- Borstals set up to deal with deliquent children.
- Children under 14 not allowed in pubs.
- Smoking was banned under 16.
School medical inspections (1907)
The Reform Act Part 2
The Labour Exchanges Act (1909)
- Unemployed workers got help finding jobs.
School clinics (1912)
- Provide free medical treatment to children in eductation.
The National Insurance Act (1911)
- All manual and people in white-collar jobs had to join.
- Workers paid 4d for insurance stamps.
- Employers contribut 3d for each worker in the scheme.
- The Goverment contributed 2d for each worker in the scheme.
- Illness- 10s a week for 13wks then 5s a week for further 13 wks in any one year.
The Care of the wounded
- Dysentry and Enetric played a heavy role.
- Not much had improved since the Crimea.
- 850 doctors accompanied
Suplly and Transport
- Was a huge effort.
- Most of the Armys man power was put into guarding the railways and slow convoys.
The impact of war
- Improvment appeared inadequate
- Officers were to old.
- Expencive failure £210 millilon
The Haldane Army Reforms 1902-1908
- Group work allowed for increased control.
- Allowed people to do there speacilist jobs.
- Training for soliders and time listing so soilders were prepaied.
- More camoflaged uniform- United them as one army.
- Lower costs for uniform
- Not alot of time in full warfare, Reserves
- Terrorital force created as a sort of reserve army, could deploy on there own
- New tatics created a fully functional force that was more professional.
- Training places established for soliders e.g. Sailsbury plains.
- Staff officers needed to be trained just as much as the soilders.
- Started thinking ahead- State of emergency peperations.
- No longer deffencive more enthisam on Attacking
How did the war change attitudes to Empire and Imp
- Stimulating patriotism
- Civilising missions of the British Empire.
- Baden Powell- Scouting movements
- Brought the empire together to create a Imperial
How did the war lead to critisms of the Empire?
- Stimulated fierce critism of the Imperialsim
- J.Hobson argued mal-distribution at home meant that domestic markets were under-consumption due excess savings being wated.
- Forced to seek less dependable outlets (but cheaper) abroaed
The Encourgagement of jingoism- the Khaki election
- British political and historical
- Liberal party
- Exploting patrotic sentiment