The Effects Of Climate Change

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  • Created by: Aisling
  • Created on: 08-05-13 19:38

Melting Ice Sheets In Greenland

1) Since 1975 (start of Industrial Revoloution) Greenland's Ice sheets melting each summer has increased by 30%.

2) Now, Greenland's ice cap is losing 100-150km3 of ice every year

3) It is retreating further and faster than many experts predicted

Since 1992 Greenland's ice caps have shown:

-Winter temperatures are 5C Higher

-Spring + Autunm temps are 3C higher

-Ice is melting faster each year

-Ice is moving from mountains to the Oceans more quickly. Once has doubled its speed to about 15km a year since 1995, while its top has retreated 10km.

-Ice is moving faster towards the sea and melting more quickly as it does

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Impacts of Climate Change on the World Oceans-Chan

As ocean water cools in the far North Atlantic, it becomes denser and sinks to the ocean floor. This forms the THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION (flow of warm and cold water that circulates around the world's oceans

PROBLEM:

1) More freshwater is entering the Arctic Oceanas a result of Global Warming, which melts the ice and increases rainfall

2) Meltwater lowers Salinity, which decreases the density of the ocean and slows down the rate at which ocean sinks

3) This could potentially turn off the North Atlantic Drift, which supplies Europe with warm water + air

4) If it stopped, Jan temps In Western Europe would drop by at least 5C, creating bitter winters

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Impacts of Climate Change on the World's Oceans- I

Freshwater flowing into the Arctic Ocean comes from- the YENISEY, LENA, OB, PECHORA, KOLYMA + SEVERNAYA DVINA

They drain 2/3 od central + northern Russia

There average annual flow of freshwater has increased by 7% between 1936 + 1999

PROBLEMS:

1) Increase in river flow is caused by warmer surface air temps between Nov + April- when they normally would be frozen

2) Greater Flow= Increase in Freshwater flowing into the Arctic=Has the same effect as Meltwater

3) Could slow down/ shut off North Atlantic Drift- affecting the THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION + cooling the whole of Northern Europe

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The impactson the world's oceans- Changes in the P

1) Southern Ocean around Antarctica- one of the Earth's most important natural absorbers - CARBON SINK of CO2

2) Cold dense water absorbs CO2, remiving CO2 from the atmosphere.

3) Natural sinks are vital because they absorb excess CO2 and slow down Global Warming

4) Now, CO2 sinks have stayed the same since 1981 but CO2 emissions have risen by 40%- increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere

PROBLEMS:

-Increasing Windiness

-Climate change warms the tropics more than the Southern Ocean + the temp difference causes stronger winds

-As wind increases, the ocean is stirred up resulting in more CO2 being released into the atmosphere

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