The Effect of Exercise on the Body - Biology B3

The Circulatory System, Respiration, Oxygen Debt and The Respiritary System

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  • Created by: laura
  • Created on: 19-05-10 18:24

The Circulatory System

The Circulatory System

  • During Exercise heart rate increases.
  • Adrenaline is Released to increase Heart rate.
  • The amount of blood that leaves the heart per beat (sroke volume) also increases.
  • Cardiac Output (cm3/minute) = heart rate x stroke volume
  • Arterioles widen to allow more blood to reach the muscles.
  • Blood is also shunted away from parts of the body like the intestines.
  • Over time exercise can help reduce resting pulse rate as the heart is larger and develops a more efficient blood supply.
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Respiration

Respiration

  • Energy released during respiration allows muscles to contract.
  • Aerobic respiration occurs in mitochondria
  • Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + 2000kj
  • When oxygen is scarce anaerobic respiration can occur, but it is not as efficient as the glucose is only partly broken down.
  • Glucose -> Lactic Acid + 120kj
  • A build up of lactic acid can cause fatigue and cramp.
  • Glycogen stores are released from liver and converted into glucose.
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Oxygen Debt

Oxygen Debt

  • Oxygen debt = the amount of oxygen meeded to break down the lactic acid produced during exercise.
  • During exercise lactic acid might have been made during anaerobic respiration this lactic acid must be broken down into harmless substances.
  • Lactic Acid + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water
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The Respiritory System

The Respiritory System

  • During Exercise breathing rate and depth of breathing increases
  • Breathing Rate x Tidal Volume = Ventilation Rate (cm3/minute)
  • Over time exercise will strengthen the diaphragm and intercostal muscles and breathing rate at rest will be lower than an 'unfit' person due to increased lung capacity.
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