The effect of exercise on the body

B3 topic - how exercise affects the body

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Increased Breathing rate and depth

  • We breathe at a higher rate
  • Each breath is deeper
  • This is to ensure more oxygen gets in and more CO2 gets out
  • Respiring tissue needs to be supplied with Oxygen for AEROBIC respiration
  • It is preferable to respire anaerobically because this kind of respiration is 16x more efficient than anaerobic respiration
  • The oxygen debt must be repaid to oxidise lactic acis into water and carbon dioxide
  • Glycogen is stored in the muscles - used in respiration.
  • Myoglobin - last store of oxygen - pigment in the muscles
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Increased heart rate

  • This increases blood flow around the body
  • This enables oxygen to reach the respiring muscles more quickly and carbon dioxide to be disposed of more quickly
  • HOWEVER, there is NOT more blood in the body - it is just diverted from areas such as the stomach which are not as essential during exercise
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Arteries dilate

  • The arteries are able to dilate because they contain muscle tissue
  • Because the heart is beating faster, the blood is forced through the arteries more (for lack of a better word!)
  • note well - the capillaries CANNOT dilate as they don't contain elastic tissue
  • The dilation of the arteries increases blood flow to the muslces - but as before, there is not more blood in the body, it is just being diverted.
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