The Domestic System

  • Created by: Zainaaax
  • Created on: 15-03-15 20:27

Key Words:

  • Clothier-> a man who buys and sells wool
  • Carding-> the porcess of untangling wool
  • Spinning wheel-> a simple machine used to twist woollen fibres into single threads
  • Yarn-> fine threads made by twisting wool
  • Loom-> a special machine that weaves yarn into cloth
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How was cloth made before 1769?

  • Clothier/ wool tradesman buys wool from farmer
  • Takes wool to villagers who turn it into cloth
  • The Domestic System involved home or family

-Family could work whatever hours they wanted as long as they met the deadlines

  • Clothier returns to collect cloth and pays the family for their production
  • Gives them next time's order and takes the cloth away to be dyed different colours by another family before it's sold
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How was cloth made after 1769?

  • Richard Arkwright-> responsible for ending 'The Domestic System'
  • Invented the spinning frame-> produced good, strong thread but couldn't fit in homes and was very heavy so had to be powered by a horse or waterwheel
  • He decided to put huge spinning machines in factories/mills
  • First opened in 1771 at Cromford by Derbyshire
  • > powered by ONE waterwheel
  • Machines and workers had to work 24 hours-> people began to work shifts
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The Slave Trade Triangle

  • Slavery started because-

1. Greed/Money- High priced goods manufactured in Europe loaded onto ships and exchanged with African traders in return for men, women and children (slaves)

2. Racism- Europeans believed they were better. Tried to justify it by quoting the Bible

3. Religion- Europeans mainly Christians whereas most Africans were Muslim

4. History- The Ancient Egyptians and Romans used slaves-> was seen as normal

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The Middle Passage

How were slaves captured and transported?

  • Ships travelled the slave triangle
  • Slaves were chained to the floor so they couldn't stand up
  • Ships kept detailed records of journeys, cargos carried, profits gained
  • Slaves crammed into ships and conditions were horrible
  • Deadly form of diarrheoa spread amongst slaves, had to lie in their waste because they couldn't reach the toilets 
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Why was the Middle Passage so horrible?

  • Horrific experience
  • Temperatures below deck= very high, lack of fresh air
  • Seasickness and heatstroke= very common
  • Slaves were chained up, hard for them to reach the toilets-> had to lie in their own waste-> Diseases spread (e.g. Dysentary)
  • Journey lasted 40-70 days (1510-1833)
  • Nearly 10 million slaves were taken across Atlantic
  • 2 million African slaves died making the crossing in ships
  • Slave traders wanted slaves to be in good condition so they would be ideal to buy
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  • Young children worked in 'trash gangs' or as water carriers
  • As got older, worked in fields with adults
  • When adults, did less exhausting jobs (e.g. gardening, horse carriage driving, cooking, cleaning and nursing)
  • Didn't manage to live very long because of cruel and tough punishments and poor treatment, poor diet and no proper medical attention
  • Average life expentancy= 26 years 
  • Had no legal rights, not allowed to be educated, marry or own property
  • Punished if tried to rebel
  • Slave Revolt-> 1791, armies sent to control them, 'free' slaves renamed an island-> 'Haiti"= first island run by former balck slaves
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