The cold war pre-Korea

long telegram, iron curtian speech, model states and china

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  • Created by: mariamme
  • Created on: 17-01-13 10:27

WW2 Conferences

Cairo Conference- November 1943 (attended by Roosevelt, Churchill, Jiang Jieshi)

  • Focus ASIA
  • decided that Korea would be independant by end of war
  • Taiwan would go from Japan to China

Tehran- November 1943 ( attended by Big 3)

  • agreed to open second front to relieve red army
  • In turn Soviet agree to enter war against Japan after Germany defeated

Yalta- February 1945 (attended by Big 3)

  • Agreement Germany disarmed and divided into 4 occupation zones
  • In exchange entering war against Japan, USSR given: islands South Sakalin and Kurils, control outer Mongolia, two ice-free pacific ports, control 2 railways Manchuria


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The Potsdam and Moscow conferences

Potsdam Conference-July 1945 ( Truman, Stalin and Churchill, replaced by Atlee)

  • Potsdam decleration- complete surrender Japan or would face complete destruction
  • confirmation of division of Germany
  • liberation of Korea as soon as possible

Moscow conference of foreign ministers- December 1945

  • US and soviet set up joint commission to make recommendations of single free gov in Korea
  • 4 part trusteeship for up to 5 years before can become independant
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The UN

  • Churchill and Roosevelt founded by signing Atlantic Charter August 1941, lay out goals post-war world, agreed:
    • not to expand spheres influence
    • uphold territiorial boundaries
    • support rights of people to choose own government
    • restore self-government to countries who had lost right
    • grant free access to raw materials and trade to all countries
    • seek economic collaberation between all countries
    • strive together for peace and freedom from fear and want
    • work towards disarmament
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George Kennan- the father of containment

  • advised exploration of Soviet intentions regarding  future of the remainder of Europe,not to allow Soviet influence to go unchecked- basis containment policy
  •  hardened attitude State department sowing seeds later Defensive Perimeter Strategy
  • After defeat Germany and Japan 1945, US gradually reduced conventional US armed forces to 1/10th wartime level: aprox 12 million in 1945 to 1.4 million in 1947 (had stockpilled atomic weapons)
  • alarmed Kennan. State department request for routine research gave opportunity to investigate whole basis of Soviet foreign policy
  • findings presented in long telegram- February 1946
  • Kennan suggested Soviet leaders assumed:  
  • surrounded by capitalist enemies that they would eventually have to fight
  • could exploit disagreements amongst these enemies
  • to defend USSR must fight 'patient but deadly struggle' for total destruction of rivals
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The long telegram-February 1946

  • Alarming tone sowed seeds of anti-communism, though claimed not intended forward anti-communist poilcy to begin, prefered Roosevelts more conciliatory approach
  • claimed sections of telegram taken out of context
  • Recommendations from telegram were:  
      • focus military strategy solely on USSR
      • defend: Atlantic community, Mediterranean, Western Pacific including japan and Phillipines
      • restore economic health and political self-confidence to Britain, France, Germany and later Japan
      • fill power vacuums in Germany and Japan to increase stability
      • educate American public in realites of situation
      • act as chief defender freedom, present positve, constructive pic of world US would like to see
  • Big impact in state department, Kennan recalled to washington and Truman gave major role in drawing up Marshall plan
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Churchill's iron curtain speech- 1946

  • Given in Fulton, Missouri in front of president Truman, no longer PM
  • Big factor in turning US public opinion against USSR , criticism of Soviet policy in Eastern Europe exposing soviet threat to democracy, claims such as want 'indefinate expansion of power and doctrines'
  • More subtle meassage lost: hoped Anglo-American relationship pave way for world peace and strengthen Europe as barrier against Soviet advance, intended to emphasise work UN organisation as basis for peace
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Truman Doctrine

  • Due to war economies throughout Europe shattered, allowing comunism to make inroads in many countries
  • Marshall Tito establishe communist gov in Yugoslavia, civil war in Greece, unrest in Turkey
  • Jan 1947, Britain forced to withdraw support for these countries due to lack of finances, so USA had to step in to defend areas from communism
  • Truman requested $25 million aid package for Greece

Marshall Aid

  • Named after General George Marshall
  • Entrusted with task of overseeing use of $400 million of economic aid to reconstruct  Europe, make prosperous to contain communist expansion (Soviet-inspired)
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The USA 'model states'- The Philippines

  • Wanted close relations Asia, Japan and Phillipines reconstructed to exemplify success democracy
  •  Wanted to uphold capitalism and develop strong economies based on free trade in S-E Asia- prosperous economies help spread costs defence
  • no fear overstretching military resources- nuclear weapons gave USA feeling of superiority

main strategies US: 

  • make Japan satellite of USA
  • economic aid to anti-comm forces China and Indochina
  • establish and defend ring offshore Pacific islands as barrier to advance of communism and encroachment S-E Asian trade
  • prop up South Korea though of little interest
  • Ironic- USA claimed anti-imperialist but Truman prepared to accept return old Imperial powers like Britain and France to South-East Asia to reinforce democracy, could then share cost of strengthening regimes
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'model states'-The Philippines

  • Process model states began Philippines, ex-colony USA
  • when colony US bought large areas of land in Philippines to open up trade of S-E Asia to US
  • country became dependant on US markets to sell goods such as rice, tobacco, coconuts, timber, rubber
  • Filipino landed classes prospered from boom in rice and sugar prices - realised wealth depended on US support. widening gap between rich and poor, lead to peasant unrest, independance movement began to develop
  • 1935 became semi-independant, MacArthur asked to set up Philippines army, himself as Field Marshall, underestimated strength advancing Japanese, defeated in battle (1941-42)
  • Japan seized Philippines, established authoritarian gov, declared martial law used Filipino economy to support needs of advancing troops
  • Some Filipinos sided with Japanese, Huks harassed Japanese, guerilla raids, assassinated collaboraters
  • carved out 'liberated zones' north of Manila, mobilised peasants to maintain agricultural estates abandoned by landlords. Worked with US against Japanese
  • Given independance 4th July 1946
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The Philippines as a model state


reinstate free trade policy with region to make it: 

  • market for US goods, source raw materials for reconstructed Japan and US military operations in region, strong political ally in front line defence of S-E Asia
  • $620 million US investment into economy, some used to restore infrastructure, most went to individuals to re-distribute land and wealth
  • Groups dominant in pre-war Filipino society restored to previous status
  • Bell Trade Act 1946- protected American domestic producers with preferential trade conscessions, quotas imposed on Filipino products competing with US ones
  • Filipino market places flooded with cheap US goods

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Imposition of democracy and the Huk rebellion

  • USA supprot Manuel Roxas, becomes president
  • unpopular, seen as double agent and collaborater during war
  • voting dominated by literate upper classes
  • Bell Trade Act only passed by 'silencing' critics
  • Strategically placed US military bases justified as 'stabilising influence'- purpose was to maintain Philippines within sphere of influence and support re-instated Filipino elite
  • state department  officials accepted Philippines faced no outside threat
  • Military police set up under control US army
  • full of opponents of Huks, brutal repression of Huk reformers and peasant supporters
  • USA see Huks as threat to plans, powerful pre-war landlords restored
  • 1949-51 Huks led armed rebellion to gain political rights, improve working conditions, remove US trade restrictions. Rebellion crushed by American troops
  • Huks disarmed and leaders imprisoned, US justified by branding them communists or communist inspired  
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US model states: Japan

  • 6th August 1945 atom bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki (9 August), caused death of 210,000 civilians
  • 15th August Emperor Hirohito announced surrender of Japan and MacArthur becomes supreme commander of US occupation forces in Japan
  • no political system, social ties had been broken. Suffered massive casulties, almost 3 million Japanese had been killed (3% 1939 population)
  • short of food even before 3 million scattered troops began to be shipped home
  •  had been 1 of 5 powerhouses global production, had skilled workforce and industrial plant,low industrial and agricultural output, spiralling inflation, black market and looting
  • economy had been devastated, only 2 million of Tokyo's 7 million remained in city
  • large numbers poor, homeless and hungry people, orphans, widows and single women particularly badly hit
  • some women recruited as prostitutes by Japanese officials offering food and shelter, became known as Recruitment and Amusement Association (RAA)
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US occupation under General MacArthur

  • threat confrontation meant Stalin backed down on request to accept surrender Japanese forces in North Japan
  • Truman refused to divide Japan into multinational zones like in Germany
  • four-power allied Joint Council set up
  • Stalin agreed all decisions concerning Japan should be made by General MacArthur, Supreme commander of Allied Powers of occupation
  • Stalin may have felt USA might accept Soviet control of Eastern Europe
  • Truman kept promise made Stalin at Yalta allowed Soviet occupation of Kuril Islands
  • caused bitter protests by Republicans in Congress
  • American press believed decision threatened security USA and future role in Japan
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Stage 1: 1945 Punish and reform

  • Aim: remove Japan's military forces, introduce democracy
  • US still felt large amount hatred and fear of Japanese, mistreatment of US prisoners of war
  • In light UN emphasis on human rights, MacArthur adopted cautious policy in punishing previous regime
  • War crimes trials over 2 years May 1946-November 1948, gradually phased out after 1947
  • Japanese supportive, co-operate as long as Hirohito exempt from trials
  • Army dimantled, weapons destroyed, former military officers excluded from leading political roles in new government
  • many rich landlords that had supported war and expansion lost power to tenant farmers
  • November 1945 MacArthur ordered tax on Japanese wartime profits, ended payment of compensation
  • aimed to keep inflation in check and allow more control over economy
  • succesful repatriation of prisoners of war, though veterans unpopular and treated like outcasts
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Japan and democracy

  • 1946 MacArthurs officials draft new constitution, came into effect 1947- stated Japan would never declare war on another nation/ use force to solve disputes
  • Japan able to agree only as they had protection of US nuclear shield
  • constitution guaranteed basic freedoms and civil liberties:  
      • political parties including comunists allowed to exist, political prisoners released
      • woman were to gain equal rights
      • noble status abolished, christianity tolerated alongside Shinto, religious freedom
      • Hirohito removed from politics, patriotic symbol
      • MacArthur became new 'god-like' figure
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Stage 2: 1947 'soft' Cold war policy

  • Aim: make Japan prosporous to keep out of Soviet sphere
  • Japan had depended on oversees imports of food and raw materials. 1945 dried up and Japanese trade collapsed, 1947 little improvement: industrial production low, exports weak, food expensive due to shortages
  • PM Shigeru Yoshida saw importance economic development determined to retain Japan's national identity
  • Zaibatsu (large powerful companies in industry and banking that had dominated economy before and during war e.g Sony) remained in control business
  • Japanese civil servants continued reconstruction of economy- advised producing high-grade machine tools and ultra short-wave communication as priority
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Economic changes

  • 1947 Chairman of Chrysler and group American businessmen ended Zaibatsu monopoly helped set up car industry. 1949 congress grant $500 million p.a in aid to Japan to purchase foodstuffs and raw material
  • 38% cultivated land purchased from landlords under government  reform programme, resold at low prices to farmers who worked them
  • By 1950, 3 million peasants had own land
  • Kennan suggested restoring influence of former Japanese politicians and businessmen
  • US and Japan co-operated to build up foreign trade, excluding communists from involvement
  • Ministry trade and industry built on previous successes, and US fixed exchange rate to boost exports
  • economy prospered- 1947 Japanese export values-$174 million, $827 by 1950
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Stage 3: 'hard' cold war policy

  • Aim: an active role for Japan in US containment policy
  • CIA saw Japan's role crucial for Cold War balance of power in Far East

Communists controlled rearmed japan could use location and industry to:  

  • protect comm controlled lands in Asia
  • break through US defences in western Pacific
  • strengthen Soviet control of Pacific shipping and sea-power
  • launch agressive policy South and S-E Asia
  • free up comm forces for use elsewhere

Whereas if western democracies allied with re-armed Japan, would gain: 

  • industrial and military resources
  • potential military base in north-east Asia
  • protection for US defensive outposts in western Pacific
  • shining example to encourage non-comm countries to fight communists
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'hard' cold war policy continued

  • MacArthurs hold on policy started to loosen as Truman feared tight occupation controls damage Japanese goodwill, drive into arms USSR
  • Japanes comm party gaining support, encouraged by Soviet mission in Tokyo
  • 1949-Red scare USA , Japan beggining year series industrial strikes, communists polled 3 million votes in elections
  • US state department increased control Japan, gov workers forbidden to strike US occupation authorities started arresting communist sympathisers in trade union movement
  • 'Red Purge' began, eroding democracy established
  • containment comm necessary before Americans could give Japanese more control day-to-day gov
  • removing Japanese armed forces caused problems for US when preparing for independence
  • to defend Japan Kennan recommended long-term control Okinawa, expansion naval base Yokosuka, creation 'National Police Reserve' 75,000 men- basically lightly-equipped army
  • Back-tracking on disarmament policy
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Stage 4: intergrated Cold War policy

  •  Treaties recognised official status Japan at centre US defensive strategy
  •  After 1950- response to Korean war, made rearmament essential. By 1952 Japanese forces had tanks and artillery, 1954 130,000 strong-army
  • war boost Japanese economy- US  bought war supplies worth $500,000,000 from it
  •  Japanese trade embargo with China. War brought forward signing San Francisco Peace Treaty- Japanese independance
  • terms of treaty were:
      • full sovereignty
      • reperations by negotiation
      • loss all land surrenderd at armistice to USA, including Korea, Taiwan, Kuril Islands and South Sakhalin
      • Taiwan not return to communist China or South Sakhalin to USSR
      • US occupation forces withdraw no later than 90 days after treaty
  • Same day another treaty allowed US land, air and sea forces be stationed in Japan to 'defend against outside attack and internal riots started by foreign power'
  • Japan promised not to allow any other country to station troops on territory without permision USA. Japan also sign trade treaty with Taiwan.
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USA and The Chinese Civil war

  • Russia money and weapons to CCP for acceptance into Kuomingtang
  • After Japanes invasion 1937, Jiangs wife to USA to gain support
  • Result Roosevelt gives loans to nationalist China to buy modern waepons- Lend Lease Act, 11th March 1941 $50 billion to 38 different countries to sell/ transfer/excahnge/ lend equipment to defend against Axis powers
  • Attack Pearl harbour 1941, allows USA and Brit to give aid openly to China
  • 1944 USA made first contact with CCP, IMPRESSED, reluctant to give aid to forces
  • USSR liberate Manchuria after given control of two railways in Manchuria at Yalta
  • Mao's forces join in invasion, recieve Japanese weapons and ammunition from USSR, stripped Manchuria od resources
  • descisions at Yalta and Potsdam directly enabled USSR to aid CCP, Republicans blame democrats for 'shameful betrayal', right-wing politicians began to look for communists inside Trumans administration, sowed seeds McCarthyism
  • USA give aid to Nationalists, supply aircrafts, teams to Taiwan to train troops
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USA and Chinese Civil War

  • $2 billion to Nationalists
  • Army weak, cowardly, v.unpopular. Generals chosen for loyalty rather than ability
  • Jiangs army lose 45% men in 4 1/2 months
  • Mao retained forces at 2.7 million
  • CCP- popular and powerful force among peasants
  • Mao shifts tactics from guerilla warfare to open confrontation as a result defeat nationalists
  • 1st October 1949, Mao declares China PRC
  • December Jiang retreats with the remain of his forces to Taiwan, declared the Republic of Taiwan
  • Acheson suggests recognising CCP, withdrawing support for Nat China, Truman refused

Soviet- Chinese treaty- February 1950

  • Treaty gave PRC $3000 million in Soviet aid
  • USSR and PRC promise mutual military assistance against agression by Japan
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The Defensive Perimeter strategy 1949

  • Asian markets key,provided  90% worlds rubber, 60% tin, essential raw materials such as petrol and timber
  • USA saw Asian national movements as communist inspired and feared expansion soviet influence
  • Therefore USA construct defensive line military bases including Aleutians, Midway, former Japanese mandated Islands, Okinawa, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, British and Dutch islands S-W pacific
  • Okinawa strong point for contol ports North-East Asia, amphibious attack could be launched
  • military, air and naval bases set up offshore island chain
  • also allowed access raw materials in India and S-E Asia
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