The Cardiovascular and respiratory systems

Responce of the cardiovascular (heart) system to the physical activity & Responce of the cardiovascular (vascular) system to physical activity & Responce of the respiratory system to physical activity (Keywords)

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  • Created by: Nayo
  • Created on: 05-05-10 08:34

Deoxygenated

Blood depleted of oxygen.

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Oxygenated

Blood saturated/loaded with oxygen.

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Pulmonary

Linked to the lungs.

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Cardiac Cycle

Events of one heart beat.

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Bradycardia

A resting heart rate (HR) below 60.

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Hypertrophy

Increase in size of heart muscle wall.

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Stroke Volume

Blood ejected from heart ventricles every beat.

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Sub Maximal

Exercise performed at an intensity below an atheltes maximal aerobic capacity or maxx VO2 - hence it represents aerobic work.

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Venous Return

Blood returning to the heart

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Ventricular Contractility

Capacity of heart ventricles to contract.

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Oxygen Debt

Additional oyxgen consumption during recovery, above that usually required when at rest.

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Motor Nerves

Nerves which stimulate muscle tissue causing motor movement.

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Sensory Nerves

nerves which transmit information to Central Nervous System

E.G. from receptors to the CCC (Cardiac Control Centre)

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Receptors

Sense organs that pick up stimuli, which are relayed to the brain (medulla oblongata)

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Starling's Law

SV dependent upon venous return = any increase in VR causes in increase in SV and Q

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Smooth Muscle

Involuntary muscle found in blood vessel walls.

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Vasodilate

Widening of arterial blood vessels

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Vasoconstrict

Narrowing of artieral blood vessel walls.

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Chemoreceptors

A sensory receptor that is selective for a chemical substance

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Baroreceptors

A sensory receptor that responds to pressue or stretch. Refers to the blood pressue receptors of the carotid artery and aorta.

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pH level

A measure of acidity. A low pH = high acidity and vice versa

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OBLA

Onset of blood lactate accumulation. The point at which the body produces lactic acid quicker than it can remove it, causing an increase in lactic acid levels leveks which eventually cause muscle fatigue.

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Enzyme

Protein that acts as a catalyst for bodily reactions.

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Blood viscosity

Resistance to blood flow

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Myoglobin

Red pigment in muscles that stores O2

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Ergogenic

Anything that improves performance

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Lactate threshold

Start of anaerobic work

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