How Germany was divided in 1945
- In 1945, the Allies decided to split Germany into 4 zones of occupation. Berlin was also split into 4 zones.
- The USSR took huge reparations from its zone in East Germany, but the other Allies, France, Britain and the USA tried to improve conditions in their zones.
- In June 1948, these Allies united their zones into a new country- West Germany. On 23rd June 1948, they introduced a new currency which they said would help trade.
- The next day, Stalin cut off all rail and road links to West Berlin- the Berlin Blockade. The West saw this as an attempt to starve Berlin into surrender, so they decided to supply West Berlin by air.
- The Berlin Blockade lasted 318 days. During this time, 275,000 planes transported 1.5 millions tons of supplies and a plane landed every 3 minutes at Berlin's Templehof airport.
- On 12 May 1949, Stalin abandoned the blockade.
Causes of The Berlin Crisis of 1948
Important dates and events:
Jan 1947- Britain and the USA join their two zones together.
Dec 1947- Britain, France and the USA meet to discuss Germany's future, Russia is not present. <-- London Conference.
Jan 1948- Russia starts to stop Western literature being sold in the Soviet zone.
Mar 1948- The USA offers Marshall Aid. Stalin forbids Cominform countries to take part.
Apr 1948- Russia imposes a partial blockade of west Berlin. Allied transport into the city has to apply for a permit and is inspected.
1 Jun 1948- The USA, Britain and France announce that they wanted to create a new country of West Germany.
23 Jun 1948- The 3 Allies introduce a new currency- this causes economic chaos in the Russian zone as everyone wants to change thier old money to the new currency.
Results of the Berlin crisis of 1948
- Germany was divided into the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the Democratic Republic of Germany (East Germany) until 1990.
- The Iron Curtain became permanent.
- The Cold War broke out into open confrontation, and the two superpowers began and Arms Race.
- In 1949, the Allies set up the National Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as a military alliance to resist Soviet Russia.