The Behavioural Approach To Psychopathology

Covers the three reasons that suggest we learn maladaptively because of our enviroment. 

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Classical Conditioning

Learning through ASSOCIATION. We make a Bond or a Link between a STIMULUS and a RESPONSE.  

Research to support this theory was done by Watson and Rayner who used this type of conditioning to cause Little Albert to develop a phobia.

The loud noise was the unconditioned stimulus and Little Albert crying was the unconditioned response.

Watson and Rayner repeated this experiment several times until the baby formed a Classical Conditioning Bond between the noise and the rat.

It's link to Psychopathology is that anorexics can develop and CCB between food (conditioned stimulus) and feeling sick (conditioned response).

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Operant Conditioning

This is making Classical Conditioning either stronger or weaker as you are Reinforcing or Punishing behaviour. You are learning from the consequences of your actions.

Positive Reinforcement is learning behaviour because of an insentive such as child does thier homework so teacher gives them sweets.

Removal of Stimulus means that when you do something, a negative thing stops happening for example, teacher "nags you" to do you homework, you do it so they stop nagging you so you will keep doing you homework.   

Negative Reinforcement is when you get Punished for your behaviour e.g you don't do your homework, so teacher puts you in detention. This leads to a bad outcome because the punishment causes a bad feeling.

It's link to Psychopathology is that someone can be complimented on lossing weight so they are positively enforced because they repeat losing weight so they can be complimented again meaning that they could develop an eating disorder.

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Social Learning Theory

Learning through Other People (Vicariously), Likey to be someone you admire (Role Model) .

 You may watch your favorite singer being praised for donating to a charity, the singer is getting positive reinforement, but the person watching that singer is getting Indirect Positive Reinforcement. We vicariously learn from this because we learn that donating to charity is good because your role model has done it and been praised so we may Imitate them.

As well as experiencing Indirect Positive Reinforcement, we can learn from Indirect Punishment, for example, We see our favorite actor getting arrested on TV for drug abuse. From this we vicariously learn that taking drugs is bad because someone we look up to has been arrested because of it. We learn not to imitate their actions if we have experienced indirect punishment.

How this relates to Psychopathology; Anorexia can be learnt in this way as people can see their role model, such as a cat-walk model being given attention for being thin, so that person will think if they lose weight they'll be famous.

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