The Andes

  • Created by: Olliejh98
  • Created on: 27-01-15 20:27

Backround info:

  • West Coast of Southern America
  • Rising in the North in Columbia and finishing in Chile and Argentina in the South
  • Worlds longest mountain range (over 7000km and covering 6 countries)
  • Convergence of Nazca and S.American plates (Peru-Chile trench) is located to the West of the mountain range
  • Trench reaches a depth of 8066m below sea level
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  • Flat terraces dug into the valley sides held up by retaining walls  support food production/ encourage water collection in region of shortage
  • Most crops grown in lower regions (soya/maize/rice/cotton)
  • Main staple crop (principal raw material of steady demand) is potato, which many varieties can be grown in the mountains 
  • Most farming is subsistence (personal consumption)
  • Some commercial farming
  • Llamas traditionally used as transportation of goods, Alpaca also provide fine cloth
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  • Potosi in Bolivia was one of Spain's principle mines and produced lots of silver
  • There are large deposits of coal, oil and natural gas in the mountains
  • Other materials include: iron ore, gold, silver, tin, copper, phosphates, nitrates and bauxite (for alluminium)
  • Yanacocha gold mine in Peru is the largest gold mine in the world, open cast mine, rocks blasted with dynamite and sprayed with toxic cyanide to extract gold (can contaminate water supply)
  • Nearby town of Cajamarca has grown from 30,000 when the mine started to 240,000 people by 2005
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  • The deep valley and rivers give perfect conditions for HEP
  • Narrow valleys are ideal to dam (cuts costs)
  • Steep relief increases water velocity (generate electricity)
  • Melted snow fuels the winter provision (reduced?)
  • Yuncan dam project dams the Puacartambo and Huachon rivers in NE Peru
  • 2009 El Platinal project began construction
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  • Massive industry for Peru
  • Eco-tourism in the Amazon basin in the East (Madre De Dois river)
  • Scenic coastline
  • Skiing and Hiking particularly popular 
  • Inca trail covers 50km of old pathways linking old Inca settlements in the inhospitable mountains (200 trekkers each day, takes 4 days to complete at 'lost city of the Incas' at Machu Picchu)
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