The US political system
- Opposed Government intervention in economic matters
- Favoured low tarifss
- Westward expantion favoured
- Strongest in South and West
- Favoured government intervention economically and socialy
- Favoured higher tariffs
- Favoured public service improovements - railway
US social and economic development
Ordinary people could rise to the top (American Dream)
Women - Seen as domestic house wives not workers in eyes of church and media
America being very resourceful made it prime to economic growth
- Immigration - German and Irish
- Natural increase
- Doubled every 25 years on average
Western expansion - 1 in 2 lived west of mountains by 1850
Agriculture - Most Americans were farmers.
Transport -Steamboats made travel more accesible down rivers and Railways - 30,000 miles
Industrilisation- Technological developments
Urbanisation- Chicago - 40 people 1830 - 109,000 1860
South described as having an agrarian economy (backwards) and the North having a egalitarian economy (forward looking).Planters dominaated Southern economy and politics.
North - South differences
- North more industrialised - x2 moe railway than South
- North far more urban than South - Southern cities had far less population sizes
- North had growing immigrant population - majority of immigrants settled in North
Southern economic grievances - Had different economic intrest to the North. They belived the tariff was only benificial to the North at the expense of southern farmers. South reliant on Northern finance.
- Many southerners believed in Agarian ways and old fasioned values
- The North generally better educated than South
- North wanted to move forward with new new ideas / reforms in contrast to the South
Slavery Part 1
Slavery pre 1830
- Excisted in all 13 colonies however was dominated and relied on in the South due to it having suitable agricultural conditions
- Many states had abolished slavery due to it being seen as a moral evil
- King cotton made sure slavery continued due to its dominace in the South economy thanks to Eli Whitneys invention of the cotton gin. By 1830 2 million bales were produced per year.Cotton needed a large amount of unskilled labour this is where slaves come in.
- South was very commited to there peculiar institutuion.
Many of the abolitionists between 1800-1830 believed that emancipation of slaves should be a gradual process.Liberia was purchased for slaves to be sent back.This policy unsuccessful due to the high cost and slaves not wanting to be sent there.
Williams Lloyd Garrison
- Launched the liberator in 1831 - abolition news paper
- Demanded immediate abolition
- Important abolitionist for the next 40 years
Slavery Part 2
The National Anti-Slavery Society
- Estabished in 1833 by 1838 had 250,000 members
- Women played a crucial role aswell as freed blacks ( Frederick Douglass)
- Created mass petitions to congress
- In 1836 congress intorduced the gag rule which stopped the issue of slavery being discussed in congress
Why did the abolition movement win support
- Britain anti slavery writing well read in America
- Religious reasons - It being a moral evil
Workeed on a plantation , he escaped and fled North and worked as a labourer in New York untill moving to Massachusetts. He joined the abolition movement.He was overall the most influential black American of his time
Slavery Part 3
Abolitionist problems in the North
- Many northerners feared a northern exodus of liberated slaves and fearful of the effect it would have in the South.
- Abolition meeting broken up by angry mobs - Elijah Love joy killed during one.
- Had limited political success failing to win the support of the whigs or the democrats.
- Set up the liberator party
- People had different methods of wanting to free the slaves this caused arguments with in the Anti slavery society in the 1840's
Abolition Problems in the South
- Had no success in South
- Nat Turners slave revolt resulted in 55 whites being killed. Abolitionists were blamed for encouraging this .
- Some Southern churches argued that Slavery was a positive - Blacks were a inferior race not capable of looking after there self.
- Did little to stop slavery but a lot to increase sectionalism
- Kept slavery in public attention
Slavery Part 4
The nature of slavery
The only slaves in which made accounts were those who were literate which was the more privlidged slaves therefore is not a fair representation.
- Slaves were mainly located in the South
- In 1850 one in three white families owned slaves - In 1860 one in four families owned slaves
- By 1860 there were about 250,000 free blacks in the South
- Southern blacks had to carry there documentation at all times to make sure they cold proove there freedom.
- 200,000 blacks lived in the North they had the worst jobs and were segragated
- Some Northern states tried to exclude blacks from living there.
Slavery Part 5
The impact of slavery on the Southern economy
- Economists and polititians debated wheather slavery was profitable
- Slaveholding enabled planters toincrease there cotton acreage and hence their profits
Did slavery harm the southern economy
- Some historians belive slavery was resposible for the souths economic decline
- Slavery didnt use the full potential of the labour force
- Poor investment taht could of been spent on indusrty and transport
- Slavery had made southerners been critical and hatred towards industry
Did slavery benefit the Southern economy
- Given that slave prices doubled in the 1850's , investers received similar profits than those in the North
- South was making so much money didnt need to industrialize
- Southern plantation grew cotton more efficient than anywhere in thw world
- South also faced no immediate threat to its world dominance