The Vietnam War

  • Created by: Phil07
  • Created on: 30-04-19 21:01

Background & Build Up 2 US Involvement

President Truman sent $15 million in military aid to the French in July 1950

50,000 Vietminh troops surrounded 10,000 French troops at Dien Bien Phu, the battle lasted 57 days

By 1963 there were 16,000 military 'advisers' in Vietnam 

There were 60,000 Viet Cong by 1964

On the 4th August 1964 the USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy report that they had been fired upon and attacked by torpedo boats, leading to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 

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Key Terms

Air mobility - US used helicopters to move troops and equipment in & out ofenemy territory

Boat People - Vietnamese refugees who tried to sail to Malaysia & Hong Kong in makeshift boats

Bouncing Betty Bomb - thrown into air when triggered causing injuries to stomach/groin

Congress - made up of Senate and House of Representatives (like the Houses of Parliament)

Charlie Company - 2 platoons were involved in the My Lai Massacre

Defoliants - chemicals usesd by the US to destroy plants - what the VC were using as cover/camouflage (e.g. Agent Orange)

Domino Theory - the idea that political events in 1 country could cause similar events in neighbouring countries

Great Society - social policies of President Johnson in the USA

Hearts and Minds - policy of buddying up with the South Vietnamese peasant communities

Ho Chi Minh Trail - created in '59 to carry supplies from North to South through hundreds of interlocking trails.

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Key Terms pt 2

Hugging - VC & NVA tactic of staying etremely close to US forces, preventing the use of airstrikes

Indochina - name given to Vietnam before WWII  *NVA - North Vietnamese Army

Guerrilla Warfare - hit and run tactics instead of open battle *Punji traps - pits filled with sharpened bamboo

Napalm - flaming petroleum jelly that burns and sticks to things/people

Operation Rolling Thunder - US bombing campaign against North Vietnam 

Search and Destroy - helicopters and planes sent out from US bases to find the VC/NVA

17th Parallel - the border dividing North and South Vietnam as part of the GEneva Accords Agreement in '54

Strategic Hamlets - policy of moving peasant villages away from Viet Cong controlled areas

Viet Cong - Communist-led guerrilla force who fought in South Vietnam

Vietnamisation - idea that US soldiers would leave Vietnam, leaving the fighting to South Vietnam

Zippo Raids - US soldiers used Zippo lighters to burn villages they suspected of hiding VC soldiers/supplies

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US Presidents

Dwight D. Eisenhower - served in the US army, becoming a general in WWII, became President in 1953; ended the Korean War; provided money and military advisers (11,000 by 1962)

John F. Kennedy - fought in the US navy in WWII was the youngest President and the first Catholic leader; took strong anti-communist stance; became President in January 1961, but was assasinated in November 1963 so only President for 2/3 years; continued sending advisors

Lyndon B. Johnson - was vice President, but became President when JFK was assasinated; more prepared to commit to full-scale conflict in Vietnam and started the peace talks to try to end the war; he wanted to create a 'Great Society' that was fair to everyone

Richard Nixon - elected in November 1968 but resigned in 1974 because he was linked/involved with some kind of crime inflicted upon conservatives (I think) because he was a Repulican ; came up with Vietnamisation

Gerald Ford - replaced Nixon after he resigned

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Key People/Events

Ho Chi Minh - leader of the Communist government of North Vietnam

Ngo Dinh Diem - Catholic leader of the corrupt, non-communist government of South Vietnam

Lieutenant William Calley - officer who led the My Lai raid/massacre

Walter Kronkite - was a key US journalist: President Johson said "If I've lost Cronkite, then I've lost the country"

My Lai Massacre - murder of unarmed S. Vietnamese civilians by U.S. troops in S. Vietnam on 16/3/68. Between 347 - 504 unarmed people killed by the U.S. soldiers from C Company. All victims in My Lai. Some women ***** & bodies mutilated as were kids' (>12). 26 charged, Lieutenant William Calley Jr. convicted, platoon leader, killed 22, so given life sentence, but served 31/2yrs under house arrest.

Operation Rolling Thunder - aerial bombardment by the U.S. from 2/3/65 to 2/11/68 - most intense battle

Tet Offensive - campaign of surprise attacks on the U.S./ARVN - name from period of 1st attacks - holiday of Tet.

Gulf of Tonkin Incident - there was an area where VC ships could be sunk in the Gulf of Tonkin, but someone sunk a VC ship that wasn't in said circle, so the VC weren't happy.

Watergate Scandal - politial scandal following break-in which caused Nixon's resignation

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Fighting the Vietnam War

Over one million tons of bombs were dropped on Vietnam during the course of Operation Rolling Thunder

Between 1965 and 1973, around 20,000 tons of Napalm was dropped by the US air force onto suspected enemy targets

During the Tet Offensive, the Viet Cong held the city of Hue for 25 days

USA was spending $20 billion a year on the war 

Viet Cong booby traps caused about 11% of US casualties

51% of US casualties were caused by ambushes

In 1967, Life Magazine calculated that it cost the USA $400,000 to kill one VC fighter

60% of the 56,000 Americans killed in Vietnam were aged 17-21

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Overview of Timeline

1945 - Japanese withdraw from Vietnam; 1954 - Battle of Dien Bien Phu Geneva Agreement

1956 - elections due to be held; 1963 - Diem overthroen and killed

1964 - Gulf of Tonkin Incident and Resolution

1965 - February: Operation Rolling Thunder

1968 - January: Tet Offensive & My Lai Massacre

1969 - Nixon's Vietnamisation, September: secret peace talks start

1970 - USA invasion of Cambodia & Kent State University Protests; 1971 - invasion of Laos

1972 - March: North invades South, April: US airforce bombs North (Operation Linelacker), June: Watergate Scandal

1973 - January: Paris Peace Agreement signed - US withdraw

1974 - December: North launch major offensive against the South

1975 - Final fall of Saigon to the Communists

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Opposition to the War

In March 1965, about 80% of the US public supported American involvement in Vietnam

Between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians were killed during the My Lai Massacre

In late 1969, around 700,000 people protested against the war in Washington

An official report in 1971 estimated that 1/3 of more of US troops were addicted to drugs

22% of the casualties were African-American

In 1967 Muhammad Ali (famous boxer) refused to go to war in Vietnam because of his Muslim faith

20 million TV viewers saw the footage of the exacution of a VC prisoner in the street during the Tet Offensive

The Kent State University demonstrations/protests Thursday 30/04/70  Nixon announced invasion of Cambodia, protests took place at colleges and universities across the USA, Students arranged protest for noon on Monday 4/04: weekend beforehand clashes between protesters and local police around KSU; The Mayor asked the Ohio governor for help; around 1000 Ohio National Guardsmen were sent to help stop further disturbances, 4/04 around 3000 people at University - 1500 bystanders went to watch the 1500 demonstrators, around noon it went violent with rocks thrown by students and tear gas fired by the National Guardsmen, 12:24pm : National Guardsmen shot between 61 & 67 bullets into th crowds, killing  4 students and injuring 9.

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Ending the Vietnam War

Nixon became President in '69 

Between April 1969 and the end of 1971 almost 400,000 US troops left Vietnam 

An estimated 2million Vietnamese civilians were killed and 5.4 million injured 

The war destroyed 5.4 million acres of forest 

30% of  American soldiers that served experienced what might now be called PTSD - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - or mental scarring 

The US government has reported that they spent over $170 billion on the war

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Background+Build Up To US Involvement Q's

Which President sent $15 million in military aid to the French in which month in 1950?

How many Vietminh troops surrounded the French and how many French soldiers got surrounded?

Rounded up, how many days was it, 50, 70, 40 or 60?

There were 16,000 military 'advisors' by what year?

By 1964 there were 60,000 who? ARVN, Viet Cong, American soldiers, or NVA?

What was the date of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, what caused it, and what did it lead to?

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Key Terms Questions

What does the term 'airmobility' mean?

What was another name for the South Vietnamese Army?

Who were the Boat People, and what were they doing?

How were the Bouncing Betty Bombs used and where did they inflict injuries?

What was Congress and which government was it a lil bit like?

Which company was the 2 platoons from that were involved in the My Lai Massacre?

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Key Terms Questions pt 2

What was Hugging?       What were Guerilla Tactics?

What was the name given to Vietnam before the War?

What was the burning petroleum jelly called?

What does NVA stand for? What were Strageic Hamlets?

What was the US bombing campaign against North Vietnam?

What were the booby traps called with the sharpened bamboo sticks in the pits?

What was Search and Destroy?           What was Vietnamisation?

What was the division between North and South Vietnam called when it was made as part of the Geneva Agreement in '54?

What was the name of the Commmunist led guerilla force in South Vietnam?

What lighter did the US soldiers use to burn suspected VC 'helper villages' and what was that called'?

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US Presidents Questions

Who provided 11,000 military advisers by '62?

Who was assasinated in '63?

Which President was more prepared to commit full-scale conflict?

Nixon was elected in Nov '68, but when did he resign and why?

Who replaced Nixon after he resigned?

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Key People/Events Questions

Who was the leader of the Communist government of North VIetnam?

Who was Ngo Dinh Diem?

What was the officer's name that led the My Lai Massacre?

Who had a movie based on them, and what role did they play in the war?

What did Johnson say about losing said person?

What was the My Lai Massacre?

What was the name of the aerial bombardment of the VC/NVA?

Why was it called the Tet Offensive?

What caused Nixon's resignation?

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Fighting the Vietnam War Questions

During which event was over one million tons of bombs dropped?

How many tons of napalm was dropped between 1965 and '73 by the US air force on suspected enemy targets?

How long did the VC hold the city of Hue for during the Tet Offensive?

How much was America spending per year on the war? 

What % of US casualties were caused by booby traps and what % of casualties were caused by ambushes?

which magazine calculated that in 1967, it cost the USA $400,000 to kill one VC?

Of the 56,000 Americans killed, what % were aged 17-21yrs?

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Overview of Timeline Questions

Who withdrew from Vietnam in 1945?     What happened in 1956?

When was the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and what other event occurred that year?

Who was overthrown in 1963 and were they killed?

What Incident occured in 1964 and when was the Resolution of said Incident?

When was Operation Rolling Thunder?

Which year was the My Lai Massacre and which month was the Tet Offensive?

What happened in '69? Did Nixon's policy of Vietnamisation occur in September or was it the other event?

When was the USA invasion of Cambodia Kent State University Protests?

Which events ocurred in the spring of '72 and why is the Watergate Scandal the odd one out?

Which year - and month - was the Paris Peace Agreement signed - did the US withdraw from Vietnam?

What occurred in December 1974? And when did Saigon finally fall?

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Opposition to the War Questions

About 80% of the US public supported their involvement in the war. When was this?

How many unarmed civilians were killed dutring the My Lai Massacre?

In 1969 how many protestors marched through Washington?

An official report in 19?? estimated that ?/3 of more of US troops were druggies.

What percentage of casualties were African-American?

Who, on the grounds of religion, refused to go to Vietnam in '71?

How many TV viewers watched an excecution of a VC prisoner during the Tet Offensive?

How many students were killed at the Kent State University demonstrations?

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Ending the Vietnam War Questions

Between spring 1969 and the end of '71 how amny troops left Vietnam?

Was it an estimated 2, 4.5 or 5 million that were killed and which of the them were the number injured?

How many acres of forest were destroyed by the war?

What % of American soldiers that served experienced PTSD/mental scarring?

How much did the US government report that they spent on the war?

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