- Created by: Lauren72
- Created on: 18-03-19 11:36
Key word - congressional reconstruction
- 1865 - 1877
in 1865 the cvivil war comes to end and not yet been readmitted to the union and were under military rule
- This rise gave for the opportunity for congress to pass measures to promote civil rights
- This period led more radical changes the during any other period
- southern sates’ laws to control freed slaves
1865 - 1877 Role of presidents
- vice president Johnson, who took office in April 1865 after the assassination of Lincoln He aimed to return to normality
- Southerners swore an oath of loyalty to the union
- issues was union not the rights of the African Americans. The new state assemblies had the confidence to pass black codes.
-Against slavery. Very sympathetic to slavery and southern states take advantage of this….
-Black codes allowed the southern states arrest for minor offences and rent out as slaves … work against their will..
1865 - 1877 - Role of congress
- Even if the state governments and president did not want change, congress could take action.
-Radical republicans- active opponents to slavery, southern slave owners were evil. Wanted radical change to free the slaves but had limited support from the north as a whole. Led by Thaddeus and Senator Charles Sumner.
- The Radical republicans were helped by congress establishing a federal institution in March 1865, called the Freedmen’s Bureau to help emancipated slaves
- A joint congressional committee of 15 was established in December 1865 which pushed through the 14 and 15th amendments. Also sanctioned military support for the reconstruction measures in the south; federal force would not be used again in this way until the 1905s.
- After 1877, the southern sates were allowed to deprive African Americas of their rights and it was not until the 1960s that anything as radical was done to help them.
- the congressional measures of 1866 and 1867 were passed in the teeth of opposition from the president, led to Johnson being impeached by congress.
1865 - 1877- Role of state government
- Black codes allowed the southern states arrest for minor offences and rent out as slaves … work against their will..
1865 - 1877 impact role of presidents
-Johnston allowed the black codes to get passed….
1865- 1877 impact of congress
- - Big impact on the civil rights as congress could pass laws even if the president and other state governments disagree.
- - big impact on the civil rights by creating congestion committee of fifteen.
- most important changes were the 14th and 15th amendment in 1868 and 1870.
- Congressional Reconstruction did not achieve equality but a remarkable number of African Americas took part in public life (south Carolina had 8 black congressmen)
The Fourteenth Amendment
- to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War.
The 15th Amendmen
- The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previus condition of servitude.”