4. The role of education

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  • Created by: jkathana
  • Created on: 12-05-16 17:15

Functionalist Perspective

DURKHEIM-two basic functions: 
-social solidatrity (binds together people;enable cooperate, follow universalistic rules; enables cooperation in society).
- prepares young people for work( work=long periods of training for specific occupations, educ= equips with specialist skills to participate in work).

 PARSONS- "focal socialising agency": secondary socialistion=socialises into shared values of meritocratic society= key values, individual acheivement, equal opportuntity.
miniture version of wider society= prepares them for life in modern society/ economy= competitive and individualistic. 

DAVIS AND MOORE - role allocation= functionalist expl. of social stratification
-some more talented than other, some roles more complex (require greater skills), society funtion efficiently= most talented allocated most important jobs, high rewards offfered to motivate to strive for them, meritocaratic educ. system= compete equally(sifts and sorts
result: society more productive. 

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Evaluation of funct.

Strength:
difficult to argue againt the need for social solidarity to keeo society of tens of millions together

Weaknesses:
Marxists- values transmitted by education, no societys shared values, those of the ruling class.

Education not meritocratic= schools discriminate against some groups, dont give equal opp.

Hargreaves- more value on competition and developing indivd. than a sense of social soliadarity.

Difficult to see link between subjects and work= doesn't equip for future work roles.

Intertactionists- too deterministic, not all passively accept vakues, some reject/rebel.

Person's ascribed status= more important determining income later, than achievement at school.

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Neoliberalism and New Right

State shouldn't provide education. schools should be more like businesses. favour the marketisation of education. 
NR sees state education: "one size fits all" approach (imposing uniformity, disregarding local needs), local consumers has no say (state education system= unresposinve/ineffective, breeds inefficiency= less productive w/force=less productive economy
Chubb and Moe- pupils from low income, 5% better in private schools= state not meritocratic, failed to create equal opp. bc doesnt have to respond to pupils' needs, private schools ghgher quality educ= asnwer to payin customers. suggest as voucher system= each family given one to spend on buing education from a school of their choice =schools have to compete to attract parents, improving quality of education. 
NR see a limited role for state: -create framework for competition(league tables, national curriculum)-has to ensure schools transmit societys shared culture through curriculum, emphasises shared national identity(british history)

Similarities (NR&Funct)-some naturally more talented than others, meritocratic principles, should socialise into shared values/instil sense of national identity.BUT:dont believe currently doing this

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Evaluation of New Right

  • Although school standards risen (exam results measure this)- other reasons for improvement apart from introduction of a market.
  • Low standards in some state schools are the result of the inadequate funding NOT state control of education.
  • Gerwitz- competition between schools benefits the middle class, can get children into more desirable schools. 
  • Marxists- education imposes culture of ruling class, not shared culture or 'natioanl identity' as NR argue. 

if other factors the cause of educations problems not state control= NR arguement falls apart.

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Marxist view on education

Social institutions reproduce class inequalities and play an idealogical role=inequality is justified an acceptable.
Althusser-ideological state apparatus(keeps control of peoples ideas, values and beliefs), education system does 2 functions as an ISA: reproduction(class inequalities,failing each genertaion of w|c). legitimation(justifies class inequality,producing ideaologies,disguise true cause,convinces that inequality inevitable, failure fault of individual not capitalist system).
Bowles and Gintis-capitalism needs obediant submissive workers, accpeting hard work, low pay and authority. see it as reproducing obediant, exploitable workforce. succesive workers have ideas firmly placed in their minds= function of education. similarities between relationships in school and work=ready to accept/serve capitalism. how school mirrors work(correspondence prinicple):
- alienation= (s)pupils lack control over education, (w)through workers' lack of control over production 
-hierarchy=(s)heads>teachers>pupils,(w)boss>supervisor>workers
-(s)competion and divisions among pupls, (w) same amongts workers=diff. in status and pay
CP=operates through hidden curriculum(lessos indirectly taught through erveryday workings of the school=normal way to think)

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marxist (cont.)

Myth of meritocracy=idea(untrue)to create a partical way of thinking-justify inequality in educ.
Bowles and Gintis-success based on class background not ability/education achievement = promoting untrue claim(myth of meritocracy), persuades workers to accept inequality /subordinate position as legitimate.
Role allocation-Bowles&Gintis=reject functionalist claim that roles allocated on talent. research=obedient students got best grades NOT talented/non-conformists/creative thinkers/= educ. system rewards those who conform to qualities required of future w/force.

Willis(marxists)- rejects Bowles and Gintis correspondence principle=lads didnt passively accept ruling class ideology=w|c may resist attempts to indoctrinate them.
Counter-school culture(smoking,truanting,disrupting classes)- acts of defiance,ways resisting schools culture. resisting school's ideology=(lads counter-school culture) guarantees they will fail=ensuring them in manual work capitalism needs people to perform= RESISTANCE REPRDOUCES CLASS INEQUALITIES.

Business&education=marketisation policies/privatisation/business sponsorshipsfor state schools(e,g.) acadamies =more direct capitalist control over education/training
educ. system= provide willing w/force & does so making big profits for capitalists

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Evaluation of Marxist

strength:
although criticises-does highlight how eductaion maintains class inequality.

weaknesses:
Postmodernists
- out of date, corrospondence principle no longer operates/too simplistic a view -class divisions no loger important (post-Fordist-economy, much more diverse/fragmented) - where there is "inequality" really just diversity and choice.

Feminists- not only capitalism but patriarchy too. McRobbie- females absent from Willis' study.

Marxist(amongst themselves)- how reproducyion/legitimation takes place. B&G, deterministic view(passively accepts indoctrination), Willis rejects "brainwashing", shows may resist but still end up w|c jobs.

Romanticisation- Willis criticised for romanticising "lads"= w|c heroes BUT they had anti-social behaviour/sexist attitudes. also only 12 boys=(x)representative

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