DURKHEIM-two basic functions:
-social solidatrity (binds together people;enable cooperate, follow universalistic rules; enables cooperation in society).
- prepares young people for work( work=long periods of training for specific occupations, educ= equips with specialist skills to participate in work).
PARSONS- "focal socialising agency": secondary socialistion=socialises into shared values of meritocratic society= key values, individual acheivement, equal opportuntity.
miniture version of wider society= prepares them for life in modern society/ economy= competitive and individualistic.
DAVIS AND MOORE - role allocation= functionalist expl. of social stratification
-some more talented than other, some roles more complex (require greater skills), society funtion efficiently= most talented allocated most important jobs, high rewards offfered to motivate to strive for them, meritocaratic educ. system= compete equally(sifts and sorts
result: society more productive.
Evaluation of funct.
difficult to argue againt the need for social solidarity to keeo society of tens of millions together
Marxists- values transmitted by education, no societys shared values, those of the ruling class.
Education not meritocratic= schools discriminate against some groups, dont give equal opp.
Hargreaves- more value on competition and developing indivd. than a sense of social soliadarity.
Difficult to see link between subjects and work= doesn't equip for future work roles.
Intertactionists- too deterministic, not all passively accept vakues, some reject/rebel.
Person's ascribed status= more important determining income later, than achievement at school.
Neoliberalism and New Right
State shouldn't provide education. schools should be more like businesses. favour the marketisation of education.
NR sees state education: "one size fits all" approach (imposing uniformity, disregarding local needs), local consumers has no say (state education system= unresposinve/ineffective, breeds inefficiency= less productive w/force=less productive economy
Chubb and Moe- pupils from low income, 5% better in private schools= state not meritocratic, failed to create equal opp. bc doesnt have to respond to pupils' needs, private schools ghgher quality educ= asnwer to payin customers. suggest as voucher system= each family given one to spend on buing education from a school of their choice =schools have to compete to attract parents, improving quality of education.
NR see a limited role for state: -create framework for competition(league tables, national curriculum)-has to ensure schools transmit societys shared culture through curriculum, emphasises shared national identity(british history)
Similarities (NR&Funct)-some naturally more talented than others, meritocratic principles, should socialise into shared values/instil sense of national identity.BUT:dont believe currently doing this
Evaluation of New Right
- Although school standards risen (exam results measure this)- other reasons for improvement apart from introduction of a market.
- Low standards in some state schools are the result of the inadequate funding NOT state control of education.
- Gerwitz- competition between schools benefits the middle class, can get children into more desirable schools.
- Marxists- education imposes culture of ruling class, not shared culture or 'natioanl identity' as NR argue.
if other factors the cause of educations problems not state control= NR arguement falls apart.
Marxist view on education
Social institutions reproduce class inequalities and play an idealogical role=inequality is justified an acceptable.
Althusser-ideological state apparatus(keeps control of peoples ideas, values and beliefs), education system does 2 functions as an ISA: reproduction(class inequalities,failing each genertaion of w|c). legitimation(justifies class inequality,producing ideaologies,disguise true cause,convinces that inequality inevitable, failure fault of individual not capitalist system).
Bowles and Gintis-capitalism needs obediant submissive workers, accpeting hard work, low pay and authority. see it as reproducing obediant, exploitable workforce. succesive workers have ideas firmly placed in their minds= function of education. similarities between relationships in school and work=ready to accept/serve capitalism. how school mirrors work(correspondence prinicple):
- alienation= (s)pupils lack control over education, (w)through workers' lack of control over production
-(s)competion and divisions among pupls, (w) same amongts workers=diff. in status and pay
CP=operates through hidden curriculum(lessos indirectly taught through erveryday workings of the school=normal way to think)
Myth of meritocracy=idea(untrue)to create a partical way of thinking-justify inequality in educ.
Bowles and Gintis-success based on class background not ability/education achievement = promoting untrue claim(myth of meritocracy), persuades workers to accept inequality /subordinate position as legitimate.
Role allocation-Bowles&Gintis=reject functionalist claim that roles allocated on talent. research=obedient students got best grades NOT talented/non-conformists/creative thinkers/= educ. system rewards those who conform to qualities required of future w/force.
Willis(marxists)- rejects Bowles and Gintis correspondence principle=lads didnt passively accept ruling class ideology=w|c may resist attempts to indoctrinate them.
Counter-school culture(smoking,truanting,disrupting classes)- acts of defiance,ways resisting schools culture. resisting school's ideology=(lads counter-school culture) guarantees they will fail=ensuring them in manual work capitalism needs people to perform= RESISTANCE REPRDOUCES CLASS INEQUALITIES.
Business&education=marketisation policies/privatisation/business sponsorshipsfor state schools(e,g.) acadamies =more direct capitalist control over education/training
educ. system= provide willing w/force & does so making big profits for capitalists
Evaluation of Marxist
although criticises-does highlight how eductaion maintains class inequality.
Postmodernists- out of date, corrospondence principle no longer operates/too simplistic a view -class divisions no loger important (post-Fordist-economy, much more diverse/fragmented) - where there is "inequality" really just diversity and choice.
Feminists- not only capitalism but patriarchy too. McRobbie- females absent from Willis' study.
Marxist(amongst themselves)- how reproducyion/legitimation takes place. B&G, deterministic view(passively accepts indoctrination), Willis rejects "brainwashing", shows may resist but still end up w|c jobs.
Romanticisation- Willis criticised for romanticising "lads"= w|c heroes BUT they had anti-social behaviour/sexist attitudes. also only 12 boys=(x)representative