1.2.b The River Nile Delta

  • Created by: lee8444
  • Created on: 30-01-20 08:10

Physical factors influencing coastal landforms

  • Low energy environment
  • Fluvial deposition has exceeded marine erosion for over 3000 years
  • Due to tideless coast decreasing eriosion
  • High amounts of sediment carried from River Nile
  • These physical factors are beginning to change due to human fcators
  • Catchment of 3,000,000km2
  • Annual rainfall of 600mm
  • Discharge is less than 3000m3 per second
  • 91.3 million tonnes of sediment
  • North-Westerly winds causing longshore drift heading East
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The inter-relationship of landforms

  • Delta begins to split 160km inland
  • Aswan Dam constructed in 1964 in Southern Egypt
  • Wave action redistributes sediment into two lobes extending past the delta
  • Lobes create lagoons which become filled with fine sediment
  • Sand bars - typical of tideless seas
  • West of Abu Qir headland there is cresentic bar systems due to rip currents and no longhsore dift
  • Parallel longshore bars exist from Abu Qir headland to Port Said due to LSD
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Changes to the Nile Delta

  • Since the Aswan Dam was built, the rates of erosion and deposition have chnaged dramatically
  • Rapid reduction in sediment deposition at the Delta from 120 million tonnes per year to trace amounts now
  • Rising sea levels  of 1.2mm per year have also increased wave power increasing the rates of erosion
  • All of this has led to retreats of 148 metres per year
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