Location of tropical rainforets
- Rainforests are found in Africa, Asia, Australia, and central and south America.
- The largest rainforest in the worls is the Amazon rainforrest.
- Rainforests are found on the equator in the region between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn.
- hot throughout the year.
- Very wet climate with annual rainfall (precpitation) often more than 2000mm.
Why is it hot all year round?
A small area is being heated at the equator so the heat is concentrated. Green vegatation at the equator also absorbs the suns energy.
Why is it wet in the rainfores?
Trees in the rainforrest absorb alot of water in their roots and leaves. The strong sun heats up the leaves, the leaves have tiny holes all over their surfaces that let water out. This is called transpiration. The water in the leaves evaporates and changes to water vapour. The water vapour rise up into the air and cools down and condenses to form clouds. The clouds get heavy and rain occurs.
What is Global warming?
- Global warming is the increase of average world tempratures which = the Greenhouse effect
- Certain gases in the atmospere act like glass in a greenhouse, allowing sunlight through to heat the earths surface but trapping the heat as it radiates back into space.
Consequences of global warming
- Rise in sea level- melting of ice caps this will cause flooding.
- Storms and hurricanes are more frequent.
- Natural vegatation zones may hange E.G- Spread of droughts and desertification.
- Wildlife and sealife in sensitive to temprature changes.
Humans are the main cause of deforestation. Humans are cutting down rainforests for many reasons including:
- Wood for both timber, plup and paper.
- Agricultre for both small and large farms.
- Mining for iron ore, bauxite, gold.
- Dam construction-floods large areas of rainforest killing trees and animals.
- Hydro-electrc power stations.
- Cattle ranches require large areas of trees to be cleared for grazing.
- Road construction.
Effects of deforestation
- Loss of medical cures.
- Global warming.
- Impacts on the water cycle.
- Tribes hunting becomes more difficult.
- Animals getting injured and becoming extinct.
Conservation of the rainforest
- Sustainable development has a goal of improving the lives of people while at the same time protecting the enviroment.
- National parks creating protected areas.
- Goverment laws stronger controls on illegal logging and new developments.
- Reserves protecetd areas for people who already live in the rainforests so that heir lifestyles can be respected.
- Agroforestry growing of crops and trees in rows to maintain soil fertility.
layers of the rainforest
Rainforests have several layers: Emergents, canopy, understory,shrub, floor.
- Emergents- tallest trees (over 50 m high)
- Canopy- Made up of overlapping branches and leaves. most plant and animal life is found here.
- Understory- A dark, cool enviroment that is under the leaves but over the ground.
- Forrest floor- The leaves of the canopy often make the floor a dark and humid place. Decposition happens here- it is the process where fungi and microoganisims break down dead plants and animals.
Rain forest people
- Shifting cultivation- slash and burn is used to clear the forest, they chop down trees and burn them. They grow crops like manioc, sweet potatoes, yams and bananas. when the sol is exhausted of nutrients they move on to a new patch of forrest.
- Rain forest foods- At least 80% of the developed worlds diest originated in the rainforest.
Fairtrade ensures that producers in poor countries get a fair deal.
- Fair price for their goods.
- Increase access to markets.
- Better pay and working conditions.
- Supports community and enviromental projects.
- Support to gain the knowledge and skills that they need to develop their buisnesses and increase sales.