Potential divider - circuit with voltage source and a couple resistors in series.

P.d of voltage source is divided into ratio of resistances: V1 / V2 = R1 / R2

You can choose resistances to get desired voltage.

V out = R2 / R1 + R2 X V in

Circuit used for calibrating voltmeters, which have V. High resistance.

Put something with relatively low resistance across R2- you start to have problems.

Effectively got two resistors in parallel, which will always have a total resistance < R2. Meaning V out < you’ve calculated + depends on what’s connected across R2.

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