THE ESTABLISHMENT AND EARLY YEARS OF WEIMAR REPUBLIC 1918 - 1924

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COLLAPSE IMPERIAL GERMANY

FAILURE ACHIEVE RAPID VICTORY SUMMER 1914: LONG DRAWN OUT CONFLICT, AUTUMN SCHLIEFFEN PLAN FAILED

STAELMATE: GERMANY FIGHTING EAST & WEST, ALLIE BLOCKADE - DIFFICULT SUPPLIES, UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE DIDNT WEAKEN GB

STRENGTH ALLIES: APRIL 1917 USA MOBILISE 2 MILLION MEN

LIMITATION ECONOMY; UNPREPARED COSTS, INCREASE ARMS PRODUCTION, ECONOMY SEVERLEY DISCLOATED

FAILURE FINAL OFFENSIVE MARCH 1918: RUSSIA SURRENDER, OFFENSIVE WESTERN FRONT UNABLE MANTAIN MOMENTUM, AUGUST TROOPS RETREAT

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SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS WWI

WINTER MONTHS 1917 MORALE LOW

FOOD / FUEL SHORTAGE: 1916-17 TURNIP WINTER POTATOE FAILED

CIVILLIAN DEATHS: STARVATION & HYPOTHERMIA ROSE FROM 121,000 IN 1916 TO 293,000 IN 1918

INFANT MORALITY: NUMBER DEATHS ROSE 50%

INFLUENZA: 1918 EUROPE WAS HIT, KILLING 20-40MILLION 

INFLATION: PRICES DOUBLED 1914 - 1918 WAGES ROSE 50 - 75%

CASULTIES: 2 MILLION KILLED 6 MILLION WOUNDED

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THE OCTOBER REFORM

KAISER CHANGES - GERMANY CONSITUTIONAL MONARCHY 

  • MAX OF BADEN APOINTED CHANCELLOR
  • RESPONSIBLE REICHSTAG - BASED MAJORITY PARTIES
  • ARMY UNDER CONTROL

MAJOR CONSITUTUIONAL TRANSFORM

LUDENDORFF 3 AIMS

  • SECURE BEST PEACE TERMS
  • PREVENT OUTBREAK POLITICAL REVOLOUTIONARY DISTURBANCES
  • SHIFT RESPONSIBILITY NEW LEADERSHIP "STAB IN BACK"
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THE PEACE NOTE

3RD OCTOBER MAX WROTE WILSON ARMISTICE

WILSON: SUSPICIOUS. 

EVACTUATE OCCUPIED TERRITORY, END SUBMARINE WARFARE & DEMOCRATISE POLITICAL SYSTEM 

KIASER ABDICATE

TRIED FAILED FATHER SUPPORT LAST DITCH MILITARY EFFORT

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GERMAN REVOLUTION

29TH OCTOBER MUTINY SAILORS NEAR KIEL

2ND NOVERMBER SAILORS CONTROL

6TH NOVEMBER WORKERS / SAILORS COUNCILS SIMILAIR SOVIETYS SET UP BOLSHEVIK REVOLOUTION ESTABLISHED BERLIN, COLOGNE, STUGGART

BAVARIA - KING LOUIS III DISPOSED - BAVARIA DECLARED SOCIALIST REPUBLIC

"DECISIVE MOMENT IN GERMAN REVOLOUTION"

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DISCONTENT TURNING FUNDAMENTAL REVOLOUTION

DEMANDS IMMEDIATE PEACE & ABDICATION KAISER

REALISED LOST WAR, GAIN NOTHING BY CARRYING ON

PROPEGANDA & CENSORSHIPED DELAYED REALITY

9TH NOVERMBER 1918 SPD WORKER STRIKE BERLIN

MAX NEEDED SPD ANNOUNCED KAISER ABDICATE BEFORE OFFICIAL 

MAX RESIGNED - POST EBERT

SCHIEMAN DECLARED GERMAN REPUBLIC

GROENER TOLD KASIER NO ARMY SUPPORT

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STRUGGLE FOR POWER

EBERT NOT REVOLOUTIONARY 

COME POWER REVOLOUTIONARY ACT - LACKED LEGITAMACY 

PRIORTIY ELECTION CONSTUIENT ASSEMBLY

GERMANS URGED AVOID DEMONSTRATIONS, 

AUTHORITY DIDNT EXTEND MUCH: ARMISTICE STRIKES, ARMED CLASHES, DEMOSTRANTIONS NORMAL

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PRESSURE FROM LEFT

EBERT COULDNT IGNORE WORKERS / SOLDIERS COUNCILS WHICH USPD & SPARTACISTS ESTABLISHED

22ND NOVEMBER AGREEMENT - GOVERNMENT ACCEPTED ONLY EXCERCISE POWER IN NAME OF CONCILS 

TEMPORARY COMPROMISE

COUNCILS - TRUE EPRESSION OF REVOLOUTIONARY WILL

AUTOCRATIC NOT ABOLOSHED UNLESS: ARISTOTIC STATES BROKEN

KEY INDUSTRIES UNDER NATIONALISED WORKERS CONTROL

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PRESSURE FROM ARMY

SURVIVAL DEPENDED ARMY SUPPORT

ARMY OFFICERS ARISTOCRACTIC BACKGROUND

LATE 1918 POLITICAL SITUATION HIGHLY UNSTABLE DANGER BOLSHEVIK REVOLOUTION - CIVIL WAR

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EBERT-GROENER PACT

10TH NOVEMBER GROENER ASSUERED ARMY SUPPORT - EBERT NOT DEMOCRATISE ARMY

PACT WAS UNAVOIDABLE / NECESSARY

CRITICS LEFT SAW OBJECT BETRAYEL

6TH DECEMBER: SPARTACIST DEMONSTRATION BERLIN KILLING 16

23-24TH DECEMBER: SAILORS REVOLT AGAINST GOVERNMENT BERLIN - PUT DOWN 3 USPD MINISTERS RESIGN

6TH JANUARY: SPARTACIST LAUNCHED ARMED REVOLT AGAINST GOVERNMENT SPARTACIST UPRISING, 

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THE ESTABLISHMENT OF WEIMAR CONSITUTION

ELECTIONS CONSTUTENT 19TH JANUARY 

WOMEN VOTE - SPD: LARGETS VOTE & SEATS NOT OVERALL  MAJORTY - HAVE TO COMPROMISE

EBERT FIRST PRESIDENT NEW GOVERNMENT LED SCHIEDMAN FORMED BY SPD COALITION CENTRE & GERMAN DEMOCRATIC PARTIES

REPSENTITIVES DID NOT AGREE BUT GENERAL AGREEMENT THAT IT SHOULD REPRESENT CLEAR BREAK WITH AUTOCRATIC CONSITITUION 

CLEAR DELCERATION - POLITICAL AUTHOIRTY DERIVES PEOPLE

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STRENGTHS

WIDER RIGHTS: WOMEN VOTE & ALOWED BE DESPITES 

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION: SMALLER WIN SEATS, COUNTRY DIVIDED 35 ELECTORAL DISTRICTS

DEMOCRACY: UNLIKE 2ND EMPIRE, PRUSSIA COULDNT DOMINATE

RIGHTS:FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS & DUTIES GERMAN CITIZENDS INCLUDE EQUALITY & RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

REFRENDUM: CALLED BY PRESIDENT OR PEOPLE 10% REQUEST

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WEAKNESS

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTAITON

PROLIFERATION SMALL PARTIES: ANTI-REPUBLICAN PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM CREATED FRAGMENTED PARTY SYSTEM 

COALITION GOVERNMENTS: NONE OF LARGER PARTIES GAIN OVERALL MAJOIRITY CO-ALITIONS VERY SHORT LIVED

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PRESIDENT & CHANCELLOR

PRESIDENT - HEAD OF STATE

ELECTED 7 YEARS

SUPREME COMMANDER ARMED FORCES

RESERVE POWERS - ARTICLE 48

CHANCELLOR 

LEAST 50% SUPPORT REICHSTAG

PROPOSED NEW LAWS REICHSTAG

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REICHSTAG & REICHSTRAT

REICHSTAG

ELECTED 4 YEARS CHANCELLOR

VOTED BUDGET: NEW LAWS ORIGINATE REICHSTAG - REQUIRED MAJOIRTY APPROVAL 

REICHSTRAT

2ND CHAMBER PARLIMANT

MADE 67 REPRESENTITIVES FROM LANDER STATE REPRSETED PROPORTION POPOULATION

NO BIGGER 40% - ADVISE LAWS

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SUPREME COURT & INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS

SUPREME COURT

SETTLES INTEPRETATIONS OF STATES MOST SIGNIFICANT LAWS

INDIVIDUAL VOTERS RIGHTS

VOTE LOCAL STATE ASSEMBLY - OCCASIONALLY IMPORTANT ISSUES

"ALL GERMANS EQUAL BEFORE LAW"

GURANTEED RIGHT BELONG TRADE UNION / RIGHT WORK

RESPONSIBLE USE INTELLECTUAL / PYHSICAL POWERS BENEFIT COMMUNITY

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RULE PRESIDENTA DECREE

ARTICLE 48 MEANT EMERGENCY PRESIDENT RULE

EBERT USED 136 OCCASIONS

NO EFFECTIVE SAFEGUARDS RPESIDENT DISSOLVE REICHSTAF IF NOT GIVEN DECREE

EBERT LEADING VOICE CAUSE OF PARLIMENTARY DEMOCRACY

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SURVIVAL UNDEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS

2ND EMPIRE ARMY OFFICERS, CIVIL SERVANTS & JUDGES RECRUITED ARISTOCRACY 

THE ARMY: LEADERS DETEROINED KEEP INDEPANDACE. 2ND EMPIRE ALLOWED CONTINUE RESULT BIAS. FULL FORCE AGAINST LEFT WING. GENERAL HANS VON SEEKT SAW GOVERNMENT TEMPORARY

CIVIL SERVICE: FREEDOM OPPINIONS AS LONG DIDNT CONFLICT LOYALTY STATE. ADNIMISTRATION ANTI-DEMOCRATS, WIELD ENOURMOUS POWER. COALITION FREQUENTLY CHANGING

JUDICIARY: ARTICLE 54 INDEPENDANCE JUDGES. MEN WERE STUANCHLY, MONARCHIST, ANTI-DEMOCRATIC SHOWED BIAS. 

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