The different pace and causes of urbanisation in the rich and poor world

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Pace and causes of urbanisation in the rich world

  • In rich countries urbanisation occured in the 18th Century and 19th Century because people moved from rural (countryside) to urban (town) due to the Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution.
  • Machinery began to replace farm labour in rural areas, and jobs were created in new factories in urban areas.
  • People moved from farms to towns for work.
  • In the late 20th Century, people left run-down inner city areas and moved to the country. But people are now being encouraged back by the redevelopment of these areas.
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Pace and causes of urbanisation in the poor world

  • In poor countries urbanisation occurs now because of push and pull factors.
  • There are often a shortage of services (education, access to water and electricity) in rural areas. Also, people from rural areas sometimes believe that the standard of living is better in cities (even though this often turns out not to be the case).
  • There are more jobs in urban areas. Industry is attracted to cities because there's a larger workforce and better infrastructure than in rural areas.
  • In rural areas some people are subsistence farmers. This means they grow food to feed their family and sell any extra to make a small income. Poor harvests and crop failures can mean they make no income and even risk starvation.
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Push (Repel) Factors

  • Basic services
  • Little sanitation
  • No electricity
  • Crop failure
  • Waiting for low pay
  • Little jobs
  • Little to occupy young people
  • Lack of water
  • Draughts
  • Poverty
  • No healthcare
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Pull (Attract) Factors

  • Wealth
  • High employment
  • More sanitation
  • Running water
  • Healthcare
  • Planned sanitation
  • Higher wages
  • Cushioned from draughts
  • Education
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