The Different Lobes and Cortices of the Brain

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  • Created by: Em
  • Created on: 05-03-16 09:05

Frontal Lobe

  • Is the largest lobe 
  • Receives and coordinates messages from the other lobes in the brain 
  • Contains the primary motor cortex and Broca's area
  • Responsible for higher mental functioning such as:
    • Logical thinking
    • Reasoning 
    • Planning 
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Primary Motor Cortex (part of the frontal lobe)

  • Responsible for the planning, initiating and performing of voluntary movement 
  • Controls voluntary bodily movements ia the control of the skeletal muscles 
  • This cortex is in each hemisphere of the brain, left and right, and controls movements from the opposite side of the body (the cortex in the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body)
  • Different areas of the cortex control different parts of the body 
  • Body parts with more 'precise' movement take up more space in the cortex
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Broca's Area (part of the frontal lobe)

  • Generally found in the left hemisphere of the brain only
  • Plays a cruicial role in the production of speech that is clear and fluent 
  • Involved with coordinating movements of the muscles that are needed for speech 
  • If damage is done to the area it causes Broca's aphasia (otherwise known as non-fluent aphasia)
    • Broca's aphasia is the inability to produce or understand clear speech #
    • Causes speech to be slow and deliberate (but it still makes sense)
    • People who have Broca's aphasia leave out small words like 'if' and 'but' while speaking
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Parietal Lobe

  • Is found at the top of the hear 
  • Contains the primary somatosensory cortex
  • Registers sensory information such as: 
    • Touch 
    • Pressure 
    • Pain 
    • Temperature 
    • Bodily movements 
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Primary Somatosensory Cortex (part of the parietal

  • Recieves and processes sensory information form specific parts of the body such as the:
    • Arms
    • Legs
    • Hands 
    • Feet
    • Legs
    • Lips 
    • Tongue etc
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Occipital Lobe

  • Found at the back of the head
  • Processes visual information 
  • Contains the primary visual cortex
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Primary Visual Cortex (part of the occipital lobe)

  • Involved in receiving and processing visual information from sensory receptors in the retina (at the back of the eye)
  • Decides where to the visual information is first transmitted to 
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Temporal Lobe

  • Found at the side of the brain, above the ears and behind the temples
  • In charge of auditory perception, language comprehension, some emotional control and memory (facial recognition)
  • Contains Wernicke's area 
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Wernicke's Area (part of the temporal lobe)

  • Enables the comprehension of speech and language 
  • Also enables the interpretation of written words
  • Locates words from memory to express a particular meaning 
  • Creates meaningful and gramatically correct speech 
  • Damage to this area results in Wernicke's aphasia (otherwise known as fluent aphasia)
    • Wernicke's aphasia affects your ability to comprehend speech 
    • People with Wernicke's aphasia can't produce meaningful sentences but can string words together 
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Primary Auditory Cortex (part of the temporal lobe

  • Receives and processes sound from both ears so we can perceive and identify different types of sound 
  • Different areas of the cortex register and respond to different types of sound 
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