The Development Gap

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Water Aid

UK NGO - formed in 1981
Works in 26 countries

  • Bottom Up = 1.1m gained access to water and 2m access to sanitation
  • Uses intermediate technology so it's sustainable
  • Appropriate, inexpensive, uses local materials; 2 people needed to build it

Saves time collecting water (womens rights), better quality, ownership


Life expectancy 37
28% access to clean water; 24% access to sanitation... LANDLOCKED

Kayola Village 2011
Given water pump for clean water and a kiosk 
Lengthens lives of those needing medication for HIV
20 water points installed and 218 trained in artesian skills; security for women improved

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Pergua Dam - Malaysia

Malaysia is a former British Colony

UK government provided £234 million (half the cost) for an HEP plant on the Pergua river

In return the Malaysian government had to purchase £1 billion worth of fighter jets - Illegal = aid in return for arms is against British ruling)


  • Pylons opened up areas to commercial loggers; biodiversity lost
  • Electricity sent to the capital; doesn't benefit local poor
  • River silted up
  • Erosion due to rainforest depletion.
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Cahora Bassa Dam - Mozambique

Transboundary river passes through the Congo, Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.

Started in 1960s - government sent power to South Africa (1920MW)
1MW powers 1000 US homes

Only 1% of rural Mozambique have a direct electricity supply 
BUT selling to South Africa boosts their economy


  • Flooding downstream in 1978, 2000 and 2013 (killed  36 and displaced 70000)
  • Local shrimp industry destroyed
  • Dam potential depleted by other dams upstream
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Botswana - Mining

TNC De Beers moved in:

  • Diamonds accounted for 80% of total exports 2000-2005 (vulnerable)
  • Botswana is the largest producer/exporter world wide
  • Company said global production will decline from 2020 


Rising living standards
Investment in healthy/education (can address HIV which 37% have)
Healthy financial and balance of payments position


Unemployment = 30%; new employment was only in URBAN areas
Conflict between coexisting activity (mining, agriculture and tourism)

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Kuapa Kokoo Co-op - Ghana

Cocoa growing co-op was set up in 1993 and they sell to Divine Chocolate LTD
It's a farm owned organisation granted government licenses to trade cocoa.

50 000 small scale farmers - sold 27% of production to FairTrade 2008-2009


  • Farmers receive an extra $150 per tonne (10% more than world market)
  • Receive a PREMIUM - build wells, toilets, mobile clinic, invest in training
  • Trained to deal with pests eg the black pod
  • Share holders in Divine Chocolate LTD = the profits are invested into projects in Ghana
  • An elected member weighs and records the beans so they have ownership over the official trading.
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Text Messaging

2009 - UN scheme

  • donate food to Iraqi refugees in Syria using virtual vouchers worth $22 per family every 2 months. 
  • exchange vouchers for fresh produce, rice, eggs, lentils etc.

Safari-com transmits daily reports from the Kenyan agricultural commodity exchange

1/3 of the population live in poverty
4.1 telephones per 1000 people
Asian Pacific Development Information Program (funded by the UN) created citizen info centres with books, computers and training

Low levels of literacy and cheap means of access.

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China's FDI into Africa

China cancelled $10bn of Africa's debt and gave relief to 31 countries

Africa is rich in minerals, diamonds, oil reserves have has 40% HEP potential;
China needs raw materials as oil consumption growth is 10% per year!

China invested £800m in Angola for an oil field - get's 1/3 of it's oil from here

Impacts on Africa...

  • Gains employment, infrastructure and skills
  • Get's good trade terms
  • Low wages and health&safety issues
  • Displacement of people
  • Chinese workers often used instead
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South Africa

10% of the population earns more than 50% of household incomes
The poorest 40% accounts for <7% of household incomes

GDP 2009 in Joannesberg and Cape Town - $8000-10 000 but in eastern Cape = $4000

Apartheid - legal system classifying people into racial groups and allocated areas (1948-1994)
White supremacy? Enforced white only jobs etc.

There are 19 million black people to 4.5 million white people but:

  • White people are allocated 87% of the land
  • There are 44000 blacks per doctor compared to only 400 whites per doctor
  • White people have a 75% share of the national income
  • The infant mortality rate is 40% with black people but 2.7% with white people.
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5.1 million in 2001 to 11 million in 2016 - massive population growth!
Causes of growth... ATTRACTS FDI
Colonial ties with the UK
Temperate climate
Highly trained grads
World centre for telecommunications and software (1200 tech companies)


  • 10km flyover and airport built to increase access
  • There are strict emission standards
  • The rising middle class means increasing salaries and affluence - luxuries are now seen as essential - multiplier effect


  • Westernisation - changing 
  • Only 17 lakes now (in the 70's there were 100) = water crisis
  • Takes 1 hour to travel 10km - pressure on roads and infrastructure (increased powercuts)
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14 million; 600 new migrants per day

Commercial capital - 33% of entire tax revenue
Home to TNCs HQs
Bollywood is worth $51billion


  • 500 to 1 toilet 
  • Water rationing (2 hours)
  • 4000 diptherea and diarrhoea cases per day
  • 26 billionaires
  • earn £1-2 per day in the slums - illegal, untaxed
  • 1/2 metre of toxic sludge 
  • mangrove swamps used as rubbish dumps
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