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- Created on: 14-05-20 10:44
The Berlin Crisis- 1948 (not a crisis point)
- Germany was divided into 4 parts after they lost WW2. It was divided between Soviet, Uk, US and France.
- In 1947 Bizonia was formed when the Uk and USA combined their zones.
- In 1948 Trizonia was formed when France also joined.
- The West blamed the East and the East blamed the West for troubles in Germany.
- In 1948 Trizonia introduced a new currency of Deutschmark as a single western currency. This made trade easier in the West, but left the Soviet side out, causing comaprative poverty.
- Stalin reacted by ordering the Berlin Blockade in June 1948. Berliun was in the Soviet sector so thi cut of the people in Berlin from resources. Land links were cut off for 'maintenance'.
- The East ordered 170,000 tonnes of supplies to be flown into Berlin. Stralin couldn't react as it would start a war.
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Point 1- Leading Up To And The Berlin Wall
- There was apolitical and social divide of Eastt and West Germany.
- West Geramany was prosperous as they traded with the Western countries and recieved Marshall aid.
- East Germany was poor and monitered by secret police.
- Riots began in East G. in 1953
- By 1958 over a sixth of East G.s population had crossed over to West G., many were skilled workers seeking higher pay.
- Khrushchev made East G. an independant country on the 27th Novemeber 1958.
- Ultimatum was called and the Weatern military forces had to withdraw from Belin within the next 6 months. This had a major im[pact on international relations.
- Both sides had nuclear weapons, so that was always a looming threat.
- On the 12th August 1961 East G. troops closed up the border and, eventually, a concrete wall was put up, which cut through streets and even buildings
- Many East G. citizens still tried to escape. One woman tried escaped by throwing a mattress out a window and jumping on it. She later died of her injuries.
- 130 were shot for trying to escape over the course of the wall's 'reign'.
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Point 2- The Cuban Missile Crisis
- Fidel Castro and Che Quevara toppled Cuba's pro-American government in 1959.
- Eisenhower was worried about their trade (mostly sugar) with Cuba
- Tension continued as the USA refused to give Cuba economic aid unless Cstro followed the guidelines set out by the International Monetary Fund.
- In May 1959, Cuba took their land owned by foreign nationals
- In Febrauary 1960 Castro made an agreement with the Soviet Union that Khrushchev would buy Cuban sugar and provide Cuba with economic aid and arms
- In January 1961 the US broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba
- The US tried to start another revolution in The Bay of Pigs with Cuban exiles, to put in place a pro-US government but failed. This was run by Kennedy. Failed as Cstro found out their plans and also the Cuban people were already happy.
- On the 14th October 1962 an AMerican U-2 spy plan took pictures of launch pads for missiles capable of terrible damage to the USA.
- Excomm met up every day to discuss what to do- a naval blockade was set up around Cuba.
- Kennedy informed the public on 22nd October
- On 24th October Soviet ships reached the blockade and then turned around.
- Soviet missiles were removed form Cuba on the 26th October.
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Point 3- Prague 1968
- Alexander Dubeck was elected 1st secretary of the Czech Communist Party.
- He introduced reforms: censorship and critisim was relaxed, a year transition to free elections, more power to Czech regional governments, people could travel abroad, trade increaded with the West. This was nicknamed the Prague Spring
- Brezhnev threatenned Dubeck by sending Warsaw Pact troops into Czechoslovakia and the on the 12th August 1968, 500 000 troops invaded and ended the Spring.
- The Soviet Union justified the attack as a necessity toprotect the unity of the Communist movement in Europe (domino effect)
- The Brezhnev Doctrine was introduced On 26th September 1968 (Actions of any Communist state affected all Communist countries and The Union could get involved.)
- The USA was too busy with Vietnam and the arms control treaty with Moscow.
- 300 000 Czech people fled.
- Many demonstrations sought to topple Soviet control- Jan Palach set himself on fire in January 1969 as demonstration against Soviet rule.
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