The Civil War - Oliver Cromwell

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  • Created on: 18-05-16 15:56

The Civil War - Who Was Oliver Cromwell?

Fact File

Born on the 25th April 1599, in Huntington, a small town near Cambridge.

His parents were Robert Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William Steward.

Oliver Cromwell attended the free school attached to the hospital of Saint John in Huntington, where he was taught by Doctor Thomas Beard.

He then spent a year in Sidney Sussex college, Cambridge. However, his university career was cut short by the death of his father in June 1617. He returned home to care for his widowed mother and seven unmarried sisters.




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The Civil War - Who Was Oliver Cromwell?

Fact File

Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier, daughter of Sir James Bourchier, who was a London leather merchant. They had nine children.

On the 3rd September 1658 Cromwell died at Whitehall, probably from a lethal combination of malaria and typhoid.

Cromwell received an elaborate ceremony and was buried in a newly created vault in Henry VII’s chapel at Westminster Abbey, late November.

On the 30th of January 1661, Cromwell’s body was dug up by the monarchist regime, executed and buried again in Tyburn, though his head was placed on a spike in public view on the roof of Westminster hall.


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Oliver Cromwell's Role in the Civil War

When the civil war began, Cromwell was sent to organise the defence of Norfolk.

When the east Anglian countries formed the eastern association he was put in charge of the cavalry.                                                                                                                     

In 1645 Cromwell pushed for the formation of a standing army. Under the command of Thomas Fairfax, with Cromwell as his deputy, this “new model army” was quick to beat the main Royalist force in the battle of Naseby on June 14 1645.

This battle marked the beginning of remarkable victories which within a year forced Carles to surrender.


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Oliver Cromwell's Role in the Civil War

When the civil war ended with Parliament victorious, Cromwell played a part in trying to keep Parliament united.

He also tried to smooth things out between Parliament and the army in 1647 when the army mutinied and refused to disband.

He  played a prominent part in the second civil war and was the main mover for the decision to execute Charles I.


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How Did he Change England?

Parliament was entrusted with governing England, but Cromwell soon became dissatisfied with this system of rule and in 1653 Cromwell, backed by an army, sent home MP’s and became the effective leader from 1653 to 1658.

Cromwell was a puritan and therefore encouraged industriousness as it was believed that hard work would help a person reach heaven.

He therefore banned anything he believed was pointless enjoyment such as, sports and entertainment.

Cromwell also closed theatres, inns and gambling houses and plain dress was inforced.




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How did he Change England?

Sunday was a holy day under Puritan rule and anyone caught doing  unnecessary work could be put in the stocks, whilst even walking anywhere except church could result in a fine.

In medieval days feastings were held to celebrate saint’s lives. In Cromwell’s England. Monthly fast days, where people abstained from food, were introduced to encourage English people to focus of God.

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