James I- Charles I
James I was described as a weak and ugly. He was ill mannred and only ever washed the tips of his fingers. He kept peeace, though was very biased and played favourites. He became King 24 March 1603 and died 27 March 1625. Before becoming King of England, he was James VI of Scotland.
He inherited debts, lack of power, the Ideology of the Divine Right of Kings- that the reigning monarch was chosen by God.
He married a French Catholic Princess: Henrietta Maria. He also ruled without Parliament for 12 years and collected shipping taxes without their approval when they wouldn't give him any money.
Many feared that he favoured Catholics and he was often compared to Elizabeth I. There had been a religion problem since Henry VII and to make it worse, Archbishop Laud tried to end Puritian ideas. He spent lots of money on paintings and raised shipping tax. Due to this, England had money issues.
21 causes that made Charles I lose power:
21 causes that made Charles I lose power:
- In 1625, Charles went to war with Spain and lost.
- In 1629, Charles locked MPs out of Parliament for 11 years.
- In 1628, Charles went to war with France and lost.
- Many in England feared that he favoured the Catholics
- Charles firmly believed in the Divine Right of Kings and that it was his right to run the country as he wished.
- Since Henry VII there had been probelms over religion and Charles culd not hope to keep everyone happy.
- Charles spent a great deal of money on art.
- In 1626, Parliament refused to raise money for Charles.
- In 1640, Charles went to war with Scotland and lost. He had to pay the Scots to leave England.
- Many feared his children were secretly being brought up as Catholics
- There was general belief that Parlaiment should have more say in how the country should be run.
21 causes that made Charles I lose power: Continue
- England had money issued. Charles should've set a better example for people in regards to spending.
- Charles was arrogant and would not listen to the opinions of others.
- Charles had too many favourites at court and only listened to their advice.
- Charles forced his way into the House of Commons and tried but failed to arrest 5 MPs in January 1642
- Charles decided to rule without Parliament when it would not give him the taxes he wanted.
- Archbishop Laud tried to end Puritan ideas in the Church of England
- Laud introduced a new prayer book to Scotland, and Scottish rebels attacked because they hated it so much.
- Charles used fines and ship money to raise money without Parliament's agreement.
- Charles called for his loyal supporters to join him in a war against Parliament.
- People caompared him to the strong and just Elizabeth I.
The Grand Remonstrance- 1641- List of demands made by MPs. Some didn't want it to be printed.
Irish Rebellion -1641- Catholics protesting against Pritestant landlords. 20,000 said to be killed. rumours Charles was behind it.
Religious divisions- Laud's reforms were hated.
Army- Needed army to fight in Ireland. Charles was out of London, and Parliament wanted control
19 proposistions- set of demands by Parliament (eg. Parliament should elect ministers). This had gone too far.
It was now Royalists vs Parliamentarians
Battle of Marston Moor 1644:
The Parlaimentrians won. The Royalists were led by Prince Rupert. Oliver Cromwell won because he had the 'New Model Army' which was a very disiplined army
The Battle of Nasbey 1645:
The Parliamentrians won.
Edgehill, Warwickshire 23rd October 1642 Indecisive
Newbury, Berkshire 20th September 1643 Parliamentarians
Cropredy Bridge, Oxfordshire 29th June 1644 Royalists
Marston Moor, Yorkshire 2nd July 1644 Parliamentarians
Newbury, Berkshire 27th October 1644 Indecisive
Naseby, Northamptonshire 14th June 1645 Parliamentarians
Langport, Somerset 10th July 1645 Parliamentarians
Why did Parliament win
May 1646- Charles surrendered to Parliament who took him prisoner and put him is Carisbrooke castle in the Isle of Wight
1648- For the last two years, Charles had been negotiating with Parliament to solve the situation but had secretly persuaded the Scots to invade. This started the second civil war.
In 1660, Charles II was invited to be king again. He was given the same power as his father. He declared that all laws passed between 1649 and 1660 illegal. He argued with Parliament about mney and religion too. He had no legitimate heir. He opened theatres and alehouses. On his deathbed, it is said that he sent away all the Anglican preists around him and sent for a Catholic priest. he said he was truly a Catholic.
After his death, his brother, James II, suceeded him. He reigned for 3 years and was openly a Catholic. He lost the throne in what is called the Glorious Revolution.
After him: William and May of Orange from the Netherlands were invited. They got on well wit Parliament and monarchs after that started to become figure heads.