- Created by: JennyCP
- Created on: 28-04-18 16:17
- Believed by Christians to be God's word
- Oral → Written → Collected & Organised
- Made up of OT (Creation of Universe & God's r with I) and NT ( Life of J and Early C C)
- Law - Instructions on how to live
- Stories of Origins - Where life came from
- History - Story of Israelites going to Promised Land
- Prophecy - Those who spoke for God → tried to bring people to him
- Wisdom - Teachings of life and how to live
- Gospels - GN of Jesus' life & Salv of humanity
- Historical - Found in Acts of the Apostles → How G was spread & Early Church formed
- Letters - From CL → Christian communities to help them develop e.g, Paul
- Apocalyptic - Enco & stren Church with the message that God = faithful & IC of history
Interpreting the Bible
- Not all Christians agree about how we should interpret the Bible
- Don't believe the Bible can be read literally.
- Bible = result of the inspiration of the Holy Spirit
- Does not need to be read in context
- Majority of the time Bible is to be read as it is written
- Exception - if it is clear that the story is a parable
- Word of God → cannot be wrong.
Creation - Genesis 1 & 2
- Creation stories found in the Bible
- God - Creates the world by a spoken command 'let there be... ' → transcendence.
- God creates everything ready for humans (created on day 6) before He rests.
- God - Imposing order over chaos → calms the world and orders it.
- Man created first → God made him from the earth and breathed life into him.
- Next, Animals created → as companions.
- Then Woman is created.
- God → presented as imminent
- Humans given responsibility over creation.
Creation - Interpretations
- Bible → not written as a scientific or historical book.
- Creation should not be read in this way → symbolic story.
- Teaches that God is the source of life → He creates in an organised and loving way → His creation is good and has a purpose.
- Genesis account should be read literally
- An account of creation as it happened
- Word of God → Can't be wrong
St Augustine & St Catherine of Siena
St Augustine - Creation ex Nihilo
- God is eternal and transcendent → He can create out of nothing
- The universe is made by God but is not the same as God
- Before God created the universe, nothing except for Him existed.
- God's ability to be able to create out of nothing highlights that He is omnipotent.
St Catherine of Siena - Imago Dei
- We are created in God's image
- We belong to God and come from God
- However, compared to God, we realise we are not perfect
- We have a dignity and value as a result of being made in God's image.
- This means our lives are blessed and holy (sanctity of life).
The Big Bang
The Big Bang
- A scientific theory
- Says that the universe stemmed from a point of singularity where energy and matter of the universe exploded.
- Roman Catholic priest
- First person to put forward theory
- Many people tell how the universe was made but not why.
- They may say religion gives the why answers that science can't give e.g. our purpose in life
Pope John Paul II on Evolution
Pope John Paul II
- The Bible should not be read in a simplistic way (literally)
- What science tells about evolution can add to wisdom and understanding about life that the Church has.
- Evolution → strong argument → deserves our attention
What do the Genesis accounts teach us?
Genesis Creation stories teach that God is:
- ineffable (can't be fully understood)
- transcendent (Genesis 1)
- immanent (Genesis 2)
- God plans His Creation → creates for humans → has plans for human beings
Genesis Creation stories teach that humans are:
- Created imago Dei → holy
- Stewards of creation
- Have a purpose
- Created as male and female
- Have reason ( ability to think for themselves)
- Humans → created with the ability to have a relationship with God and each other.
Imago Dei - Abortion (UK law and Catholic view)
Abortion = terminating a pregnancy before the baby has been born.
UK → Legal as long as:
- Two doctors agree
- Valid reason (e.g. mother's life at risk)
- Occurs before 24 weeks
- In some extreme cases, legal up until 40 weeks (e.g. saving mother's life or severe disability)
- Abortion → morally wrong → God gives life and blesses it → we can't end it through abortion
- Unborn baby → independent life → has human rights of its own
- Needs of the baby (to be protected from death)
- The parents (from the suffering and sadness they might feel)
- Wider society (to make sure the most vulnerable are cared for)
Imago Dei - Abortion (Other Christian views and Hu
- Agree life is sacred
- However, there may be times when abortion is the last resort
- should only happen in very specific situations
- e.g. to save mother's life it should be done as early as possible
- should only happen in very specific situations
- Abortion is better avoided
- Encourage better sex education
- Adoption should be more commonly used
Humanist → allow abortion
- Doesn't believe in God so makes moral choices by considering the consequences of choices
- Quality of life is more important than sanctity of life e.g. if baby is disabled
- The time and cost of caring for mother and baby could be better used elsewhere.
Catholic response: A person is still a person born or not, regardless of disability or illness
SVP and CAFOD
SVP (Saint Vincent de Paul Society)
- Person to person care in local area
- Seek to help people without judging them
- Offer support to anyone who requires it
- Examples: visiting people, helping people to get help, giving young carers a holiday.
CAFOD (Catholic Agency For Overseas Development)
- Works overseas to provide emergency aid (food and shelter) when an emergency happens.
- Provide long term support e.g. establishing clinics or building schools.
- Jesus taught most important commandment was to love God and others
- Parable of Good Samaritan → love others even if they are strangers
- Parable of the Sheep and Goats → Caring for others is rewarded by God
- Imago Dei → We should care for each other, responsibility to look after God's creation
Gaudium et Spes 29 and 78
- Humans created Imago Dei → all humans are equal
- Discrimination should not happen
- Catholics should try to end discrimination of all kinds
- All humans should make sure that other people are given their rights and fight slavery.
- Peace comes from justice, love, and obeying the law that God gave to the world
- Peace can't happen until
- humans share with each other
- respect each other's dignity and worth
Catholics beliefs about caring for the environment
Catholics would say
- God made humans the stewards of creation
- Gave them the job of caring for the world
- World → God's gift to humanity → humans must care for this gift
- Humans have the freedom and intelligence to be able to choose to care for the earth.
- Not sharing the world's resources is like stealing → 10 Commandments
- Agree the environment is precious and needs to be looked after
- Only have one world → we have to care for it
- Human intelligence → understand importance of caring for environment; human responsibility
- Makes logical sense to look after the world as it is where we live
- Important for human life to flourish and be successful
- Don't believe responsibility comes from God, but for making world safe & pleasant for → gen
- Encourage use of contraception → controlling population → enough resources for world atm
The Catholic Church and interfaith dialogue
Church sees the value of being in a dialogue with other faiths and people of no faith. They see that this helps make relationships between groups in society and strengthen commun
- Regularly meeting with representatives of other faiths to discuss big issues in the world
- e.g Pope meets with Muslim faith to discuss issues about religion today
- Also happens locally in Loughborough, different faith groups meet together
- Whilst the Church believes that Christianity has the whole truth, other faiths have truths too and they should be valued and respected
- all created equally by God → no discrimination
- Meet together to pray or respond to world issue, religious or not
- Pope Francis asked for people to pray for Syria; organised by CAFOD in the UK
- Catholic schools welcome students from other faiths or no faith
- allows students to know people of different faiths and respect the way of life
- Catholic schools teach about other religions
- Church values and respects other religions / helps to understand each other better
Why? Build up commun to move towards peace, everyone's equal (ID), All S of C, respect
Use of Art to show beliefs - Tree Of Life
TREE OF LIFE
- Found in Basilica of San Clemente in Rome
- Contains symbols to connect to the life and death of Jesus with the Genesis stories of Creation and was created to show that Jesus is like the new Adam.
- The title 'Tree of Life' is referring to the Cross, which for Christians brings new life.
- The pictures symbols all have deeper meanings behind them:
- Chi Rho → Greek word for Christ begins with XP. "Christ" = anointed one, one with a special task.
- Alpha and Omega → First & last letters of Greek alphabet, Christ = the beginning and the end
- Lamb → Jesus = sacrifice. He is the centre lamb with halo to show His divinity. 12 Sheep = A
- Doves → Holy Spirit = 12 represent A filled by it. Doves = peace that Jesus brought to us
- Four Evangelists → M, M, L & J who wrote the Good News about Jesus
- The Vine → In Gospels, vine shows we are connected to Jesus and that he can help us bear fruit e.g. develop good qualities. Also linked with Church = life of the Church, different people
- The Cross → Jesus' death = brought new life. C believe J opened the gates of Heaven ad.
- Jesus → Shown in the heavens at the top of the image. Shown as resurrected and overseeing the whole of creation and the whole of the church.
Use of Art to show beliefs - Michelangelo's Creati
- Part of a much larger piece of art showing Bible stories from the Book of Genesis
- Show key ideas about God creating, punishing, and saving His people.
- Painted on panels of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.
- Another piece of artwork in the Chapel is the image of Final Judgement, J judging humanity
This piece of art shows the idea of God as the creator of Adam and shows the relationship between God and humans. Creation of Adam → Imago Dei
What it shows about God:
- Physically strong → reflects his omnipotence
- Older man (appearance) → He is eternal and existed before the world was created
- Reaching out to Adam (humankind) → He is keen to have a relationship with humans.
- Surrounded by angels in heaven, which is shaped like a womb → God is where life comes from
- Heaven also shaped like a brain → shows where consciousness comes from.
- God is dressed simply → showing His desire to be accessible to humans
Use of Art to show beliefs - Michelangelo's Creati
What it shows about humans:
- Adam mirroring God's posture and physicality → Humans are created by God and in His image
- Fingers aren't touching (epistemic distance) → Humans are at a distance from God
- Adam isn't trying to touch God → Humans don't always respond to God as they should
- Adam is naked → innocence of humans when they were created before they disobeyed God
- Adam = strong creation → has his eyes set on God who he knows has made him.
What it shows about creation:
- Creation is from God
- Creation is intimately watched over by God
- Reminds Christians that God is the source of life
- Christians depend on him
Judaism in Origins and Meaning
- Torah → first 5 books of Tenakh → holy and important source of teaching for Jews.
- Jews believe the Torah was received by Moses on Mount Sinai
- Many Orthodox Jews → words of Torah are not to be changed - only read literally
- Reform & Liberal Jews → Torah needs to be interpreted to help more with everyday life
- Oral Torah → spoken form → given to Moses and has been passed down
- Orthodox = Source of Authority
- Reform = Not Source of Authority
God the Creator
- Life depends on God → The only creator → pray a prayer of thanks every day (modeh ani)
- Same two creation stories as Christians → Shabbat → Sabbath & RH → Day G C t w
- Orthodox → Creation story needs to be read literally → completely true
- Reform → Liberal interpretation is better → story is not a historical account
- Some → Accept theories of BB and E → way God created the world we now live in
Judaism on abortion
- Life = created by God → Sacred
- Humans made in God's image → has a plan for every life
- Abortion challenges God's command to populate the world → act of wounding another person
- 10 Commandments → Taking life is forbidden → Talmud → when teaching can be put aside
- Most Jews → Unborn foetus not a person until born.
- Some Jews → Only God can take life → Pikuach Nefesh "saving of a life" → Destroying one life is like destroying the world.
- Many Reform Jews → Abortion can be allowed to save the mother's life and in other serious cases.
Knowledge and understanding → What do you know?
Impact → What does this mean for people's lives and beliefs?
Sources of Authority → Refer to anthologies, teachings
Specialist vocabulary → RE words
In evaluation question add in
Judgments → What do I think?
Other opinions → Atheists, Humanists, Other Christians, Jews.