The Anglo Saxons

  • Created by: mima256
  • Created on: 09-01-20 14:10

The Fifth Century

  • 401-500
  • difficult to know what is going on due to lack of evidence 
  • if the anglo saxon chronicle was reliable you could put a lot of key dates into the fifth century 
  • many scholars claim the anglo saxon chronicle is completely unreliable for this period. 
  • 410 is a key date as it wsa the end of the territory of roman britain - ended the connection with the roman empire 
  • letter between the roman britons and the roman empire regarded as the end of roman britain 
  • 449 was date of another appeal of the british to the roman consult (for the third time) Gildas says that the british wrote asking for help 
  • he implies this was for help against the picts and scots 
  • when the help from rome didnt come they invited the anglo saxons to come and help them as emrcenaries 
  • bede put a date to this letter 
  • nenius gives this date as very diffent to bede, he gives the date as late 420's 
  • people think nenius date more likely 
  • Campbel believed that this letter was ctually to the romans asking for help from the anglo saxons who had been invited earlier but were then raging and pillaging 
  • 490's then the british won battle of mount beydon against the anglo saxons - turning point 
  • john morris has argued that the fighting and struggle between the british and anglo saxons 
  • religion - st germanus visited the british church 
  • no key dates for the economy 
  • inevitably some effect to the economy with the amount of invasion 
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The Sixth Century

  •  politics - Gildas wrote his work concerning the ruin and conquest of britain 550's 
  • he was very worried, he was warning the fellow british in modern wales, devon, cornwall and somerset 
  • he was worried if the british didnt get their act together then the anglo saxon force wil advance and conquer them. Was there something going on in the 550's that we cant see 
  • king aethelbert married to bertha - political contact with the franks 
  • aethelberts law code could be a turning point - it is our earliest vernacular text 
  • intensification of frankish contacts would amke the kentish king and the aristocracy more powerful
  • bertha brought a chaplin with her, the chaplin didnt manage to convert aethelbert but without a doubt will have tried to 
  • st augustine arrival in 597 - turning point allowed aethelbert to convert without losing face. 
  • he didnt wnat to make it seem like he was being pushed around by the franks but whe nthe papal missionary arrives it seems much more of an independent move to convert
  • arrival of papal mission and conversion of christianity as well as contacts with the franks acts as a reintegration of kent in to the continent, they will gain  charters etc. 
  • ausgutines mission ended ended upmaking cantebury archbishopric 
  • 597 a turning point for the anglo saxon relationship with the papacy 
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The Seventh Century

  • synod of whitby a turning point of politics 
  • not church people present along king Oswy was there as well 
  • he decided to favour the roman way to calculate the date of easter 
  • turning point in how close the northuumbrian church was with the northern irish and southern scottish king 
  • calculating easter in the same was as canterbury allied northumbria with the southern english 
  • northumbrian ties with the north are loosened while ties with southern england are tightened 
  • oswy gets papal favour 
  • pope appoints theodore of tartus as archbishop of canterbury 
  • he has political consequences due to the close ties he has with the northumbrian kings 
  • politics was not just secular politics but within the church as well 
  • use of law and kingship and identity 
  • northumbria was converted by papal missionsaries from kent 
  • the work of the irish or the iriish missionaries were the most long lasting 
  • in northumbria when roman missionaries came it tended to lapse and not last 
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The Seventh Century Cont.

  • theodore from tarsus was a turning point in relgion and poltiics 
  • he organised the church, created smaller sees, created pastoral care for the flock 
  • theodore introduced church council 
  • good for church as they dealt with problems and helped with introduction 
  • church council was kings, abbotts, abesses and bishops all meeting together 
  • made decisions relating to the whole english church 
  • cuthbert agrees that they were a political group 
  • bede loved theodore 
  • bede expressed his anxieties to egbert the archbishops of york - problems of church 
  • bede thought that if every bishop was like theodore or CUbert then the world is great 
  • 685 turning point in religion 
  • culture - theodore of tarsus - brough mediterranean influence 
  • set up ecclesiastical school in canterbury 
  • after this it was no longer necessary to go abroad to study
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Eighth Century

  • if we know the date of tribal hidage that would be important 
  • it gives many names 
  • suggesets adminstrative growth 
  • bede's ecclesiastical history finished in 731? 
  • turning point as a writing of the english people 
  • influence that bede had over king alfred 
  • importance of 10th century reformation to monastic cathedrals 
  • what conclusions can we draw on the economy and administration 
  • decades of offas coinage are milestones of the administration and kingly power 
  • contacts with charlemagne 
  • construction of Offa's dyke was a milestone in showing military expertise 
  • giving insight into relations with the welsh 
  • is offa's reign a mile stone in the creation of england or the turning point in the creation of mercia 
  • offa wanted a iddle kingdom and an anglian kingdom that was not suposed to unite northumbria and southern england 
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Eighth Century Cont.

  • offa was not trying to make the head of the church litchfield not cantebrury but wnated to have his own bishop 
  • 796 offa died - mercian overlordship still continued
  • engilsh influence on the continent was a turning point 
  • boniface upped papal prestige 
  • milestone of spreading anglo saxon culture, ideas, and learning on the continent 
  • bedes biblican commentaries and historys were best sellers 
  • crisis at jarrow as they couldnt keep up demand 
  • anglo saxon saints become known on the continent 
  • could regard period of boniface in the eight century as a turning point 
  • 730's York officially became an archbishopric 
  • turning point in kingship with anointing offas son 
  • bedes history important culturally 
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Ninth Century

  • vikings atrted to stay in the country instead of just raging and pillaging - turning point 
  • turning point as ultimate domination of wessex 
  • scandinavian kings of york became converted to christnaity 
  • books important until edward the confessor 
  • after his death there was a breakdown in alliances 
  • alfred's newphew runs off with a nun 
  • if you wanted to strengthen your claim to a throne marriage alliances important 
  • soakmen were free peastnas- danish institution 
  • sime historians claim not all soakmen are danish 
  • doomsday book shows many free peasants which in the anglo saxon chronicle are in areas that were conquered by scandinavians 
  • having to cope with vikings disrupted the tightness of anglo saxon kings 
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The Tenthy Century

  • battle is the difinitive conquest of Aethelsstand o fhte scandinavian vikings 
  • milestone of Edgars Coronation in 953 - First english king to be crowned king of all england 
  • edgars coin reform was a milestone in adminstration 
  • mile stone in economic unity 
  • 10th century reformation 
  • Aelfridges sermons wer eimportant and a turning point in the spreading of culture within the whole country listening to the same sermons 
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The Eleventh Century

  • Cnuts succession was intersting as he was a foreign king 
  • absentee king
  • foreign king with dominions not in england he spends time in a foreign land 
  • need a steady flow of taxation while not being there 
  • the battle of hastings in 1066 was a turning point 
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