Textiles for edexcel

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Natural Fibres

All fibre that come from a natural source don'r require fibre formation/reformation
Natural fibres are:
- Vegetables
- Animals 
-Mineral in origin
 Some natural fibres such as vegetable fibres are obtained from the various parts of plants. 
These are natural fibres from plants:
- Cotton
- Linen
 These are natural fibres from animals:
- Wool
- Silk

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  • Comes from the cotton plant
  • Used for making jeans t-shirts and towels
  • Properties of cotton  fabrics:
    • Cool to wear
    • Soft Handle
    • Good drape
    • Durable
    • Can be washed
    • Can be ironed
    • Creases easily
    • Absorbent
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  • Comes from the Flax plant
  • Used for summer clothing, tea towels and table cloths
  • Properties of Linen are:
    • Fresh
    • Cool to wear
    • Stiff handle
    • Good drape
    • Durable
    • Can be washed
    • Can be ironed 
    • Creases easily
    • Very absorbent
    • Dries fast
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  • Comes from sheep
  • Is used for jumpers, suits and blankets
  • Properties of Wool:
    • Warm
    • Absorbent
    • Dries slowly
    • Breathable
    • Repels rain
    • Can be soft 
    • Isn't durable
    • Crease resistant
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  • Comes from silk worms
  • Used for evening-wear and ties
  • Properties of silk:
    • Warm to wear
    • Absorbent
    • Soft to handle 
    • Light 
    • Shiny 
    • Good drape 
    • Crease resistant
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Natural fibres

Advantages                                                            Disadvantages
- Suitable for less developed countries              - Expensive to produce
- More environmentally friendly                             - Some of the properties don't last long
- Better quality for money                                       - Delicate fibres   

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  • Viscose is used for shirts, dressing and linings.
  • Viscose has/Is:
    • Soft Handle
    • Good drape
    • Washable
    • Able to be ironed
    • Low warmth
    • Abosrbent
    • Slow-drying
    • Not durable
    • Creases easy
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Synthetic Fibres

Synthetic fibres are mand made fibres, which come from chemical resources. Synthetic fibres are continuous filament fibres meaning that the fibres come in long lengths & doesn't have to be spun into yarn. They're manufactured using plant materials and minerals.
 For example, Viscose comes form pine trees or petrochemicals whereas acrylic, nylon and polyester come from oil and coal 

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  • Acrylic is used for jumpers, fleece jackets and blankets.
  • Acrylic is/has:
    • Warm to wear
    • Non-absorbent
    • Fast-drying
    • Soft handle
    • Good drape
    • Easy to care for 
    • Durable
    • Crease-resistant
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  • Polyester is used for raincoats, fleece jackets, children's nightwear, medical textiles and working clothes.
  • Polyester has/is:
    • Soft handle
    • Good drape 
    • Very durable
    • Crease-Resistant
    • Easy-care
    • non-absorbent
    • fast drying
    • Low warmth
  • It can be recycled, making polyester a sustainable fabric. 
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Textiles & The Environment

  • Textile products have large impact on the environment. This is because the process of producing a product, results in energy and resources being used.  
  • When manufacturing, we may use dyes and finishes. This process uses a lot of chemicals e.g.:
    • Chemical dyes
    • Resins to make fabric shrink proof
    • Softeners to improve the feel of the fabric.
  • They also require energy to drive the machinery 
  • Use & contaminate large volumes of water
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Textiles & The Environment: Solutions

  • Use cold water dyes or dyes that require less energy in process
  • Use renewable sources of energy such as:
    • Wind turbines
    • Solar energy
  • Use natural dyes from plants & insects
  • Use naturally coloured yarns such as cotton, to be rid of the dye process completely
  • Develop finishing process that require less energy
  • Use fabrics that already have properties needed  e.g. lyocell is resistant to shrinkage and wrinkling
  • Use biomass to produce biofuels for transportation
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Design Obsolescence

  • The fashion industry encourages consumers to continuously update their wardrobes with the latest trends even though the clothes they have, are perfectly fine and in good conditions.
  • This leads to the goods becoming obsolete
  • This is called 'design obsolescence.'
  • This process generates a vast amount of waste
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Quality assurance & control

                Quality Assurance

  • Quality assurance is a guarantee of quality. Businesses such as river island, assure their costumers that a product or a service is of a high quality and fit for the purpose. 
  • implementing the systems is the responsibility of everyone working in a business and this is called total quality management. 
  • In the industry you need to check the quality of the product...
    • As it is being designed
    • During manufacture
    • At the end of manufacture. 

 Quality Control

  • Quality control checks are carried out during the manufacture of components and products to check...
    • Size
    • Appearance
    • Form
    • Colour
    • Falmmability
    • Performance
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Quality Control continued

  • The best time to identify what quality control checks are needed is when you are modelling/prototyping. 
  • A list of questions such as these, are sufficient at this stage:
    • Are the seams secure?
    • Is there needle damage?
    • Are there missing stiches?
    • Are the seams puckered or uneven?
    • Are pocket and zips stiched correctly?
    • Are components secured?
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