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Key Words/Terms

Insurgent - Someone who is involved in a violent uprising, without the organisation of a revolution against a sovereign (legal) government

Suicide bomber - Someone who attacks a target with an intent to kill others and cause great damage knowing that they will die in the process

Ideology- a belief that guides a social movement/individual/class/institution/large group Nationalism- devotion and loyalty to one’s own country (patriotism) Religious Fundamentalism- total commitment to a belief in holy scriptures and absolute religious authority

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Causes of Terrorism

Poverty -

Poor economy, overpopulated, high unemployment, few options

Desire of Land -

Minority groups feel alienated

Religious Beliefs -

Fundamentalist e.g. Islam

Individual factors -

Insecure, threatened, envious of West, angry at oppression and injustice in the world

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Why it's condemned

Civilian casualties

Hard to justify

Obscene numbers of casualties

Few people can sympathise

 Gives religion a bad name

Abuses religion for sake of a smaller cause

Spreads fear and intolerance

People less tolerant and more fearful

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Give Palestinian Arabs their own country

Destroy Israel (later removed)

Closer Arab unity


End British influence over Northern Ireland

Create a united Ireland

Defend Catholic community

Support Catholic community's civil rights

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Aims 2

Al Qaeda :

No foreign influence over Muslim countries

Destroy Israel

Destroy Western Dictatorships

Unite all Arabs with principles of an Islamic state

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PLO methods

War of Attrition     1969-70

Attacked Israeli people   --> gave theh Israeli Military more power

Targeted Terrorism     1972

Black September - kidnapped members of Israeli Olympic team, killed 11  --> raised international awareness

1st Intifada    1987-93

Mass uprisings, civil disobedience, strikes, boycott of Israeli products  --> recognised Israel's right to exist,  set up own state on West Bank + Gaza strip + Jericho

Negotiations   1993

Oslo Agreement 1993 --> right to self-govern

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PIRA Methods

Use of as much force as possible   1969-75

Attack British force + British landmines, bombs 1974 M62 Bombing  --> British forces left

Ceasefire    1975-6

PIRA thought Britain would withdraw from Ireland    --> realised Britain wouldn't retreat

The Long War   Late 80s to late 90s

Re-organised   Attempted Assasination of Margaret Thatcher  --> pursued political strategy

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PIRA Methods 2

Political Strategy    1980s - Now

Sinn Fein - 7 IRA members starved to death in protest  -->Anglo Irish Agreement 1985 reduced violence

Peace Strategy   1998

Good Friday Agreement 1998 --> Ceasefire

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Al Qaeda Methods

Fighting off USSR   1988-89

1000s of Mujahideen fighters recruited

International Terrorism    1992 - Now

Suicide bombers Yemen (1992)   Madrid (2004)    London (2005)   --> fear of Al Qaeda

Terrorism in Iraq    2003 - Now

Oppurtunity to attack West   ---> Instability and chaos to the West

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PLO and PIRA wanted to change borders to self-govern themselves.

PLO and Al Qaeda wanted to destroy a particular state(Israel)

Wanted to remove influence of a particular government

Wanted unity

Methods all change according to their effectiveness, they also expand and modify their operations

Their aim is not to cause loss of life but raise awareness for their aims

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Al Qaeda have Global aims PIRA wanted to end influence of a state on a particular place

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How do the ledaers lead?

PIRAOthers - Army Council

PLOAlone - Yasser Arafat

Al Qaeda Others - advisors and Zawahiri


PIRA - Tightly knit cells 1975 --> less members, they vote

PLO - legislative body, Yasser Arafat has an executive committee - Loose control

Al Qaeda - Small independent cells unaware leaders/other cells

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Leadership 2

Convincing members

PIRA - Press conferences

PLO - Conferences

Al Qaeda - video braodcasts


PIRA - Nationalism

PLO - Nationalism

Al Qaeda - Ideology of Islamic fundamentalist

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Gov. Reaction + Effectiveness

PIRA - Increased intelligence and surveillance

PLO - Negotiation

Al Qaeda - Reactive/pre-emptive military action


Good  -  Reduced British influence 

              Protected Catholic community

              Good Friday Agreement didn't rule out united Ireland

Bad  -  Ireland not united

Not a success

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Good  - Oslo Accords gave them their own country

Bad   -  Only a fraction of original country

Partial success

Al Qaeda

Bad  -  More influence over Muslims

           Failed to destroy Israel

           Caused instability

Not a success!!

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Abdulahi mohammed

AMAZING!!  Thank you

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