Anatomy: Form and structure of body and parts
Physiology: Function of body and parts
Regional: Study of individual regions
Systematic: Study of systems
Macroscopic: Gross anatomy (what you can see with the naked eye)
Microscopic: Cannot see with the naked eye
Recumbancy: Lying down
Sternal: Ventral when lying down
Ranges of Movement
Flexion: Reduces angle between 2 limbs
Extension: Increases angle between limbs about the joint
Abduction: Moves the limb away from the body midline
Adduction: Moves the limb towards the body midline
Rotation: Body part twists around the joint
Gliding/ sliding: One articular surface slides over another
Supination: Rotation of distal limb outwards along its axis
Pronation: Rotation of the distal limb inwards along its axis
Protraction: Movement of the entire limb cranially
Retraction: Movement of entire limb caudally
Tone: Continuously in a slight state of contraction.
Isometric contraction: Tension is generated in the muscle
Isotonic contraction: Muscle actually moves or shortens
Atrophy: When unused muscle shrinks in size
Hypertrophy: When muscle is used more often and it gets bigger.
Origin: Starting point, remains fixed when moves.
Insertion: Opposite end of origin, site of bone that moves and is movable.
Agonist (Prime Mover): Causes desired primary movement of the joint.
Antagonist: Opposing action of the prime mover, contracts at the same time as prime mover, contracts forcefully to lend rigidity and prevent movement.
Synergist: Muscles contract at same time to prime mover and help it achieve desired action.
Fixators: Stabilise the joint even if primary function is to stretch.