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Anatomy: Form and structure of body and parts

Physiology: Function of body and parts

Regional: Study of individual regions 

Systematic: Study of systems

Macroscopic: Gross anatomy (what you can see with the naked eye)

Microscopic: Cannot see with the naked eye

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Dorsal: Horizontal

Transverse: Vertical

Medial: Middle

Sagittal: Slice

Recumbancy: Lying down

Sternal: Ventral when lying down

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Ranges of Movement

Flexion: Reduces angle between 2 limbs

Extension: Increases angle between limbs about the joint

Abduction: Moves the limb away from the body midline 

Adduction: Moves the limb towards the body midline

Rotation: Body part twists around the joint 

Gliding/ sliding: One articular surface slides over another

Supination: Rotation of distal limb outwards along its axis

Pronation: Rotation of the distal limb inwards along its axis

Protraction: Movement of the entire limb cranially 

Retraction: Movement of entire limb caudally

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Muscle Contraction

Tone: Continuously in a slight state of contraction.

Isometric contraction: Tension is generated in the muscle 

Isotonic contraction: Muscle actually moves or shortens

Atrophy: When unused muscle shrinks in size

Hypertrophy: When muscle is used more often and it gets bigger.

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Connective tissue

Origin: Starting point, remains fixed when moves.

Insertion: Opposite end of origin, site of bone that moves and is movable.

Agonist (Prime Mover): Causes desired primary movement of the joint.

Antagonist: Opposing action of the prime mover, contracts at the same time as prime mover, contracts forcefully to lend rigidity and prevent movement.

Synergist: Muscles contract at same time to prime mover and help it achieve desired action.

Fixators: Stabilise the joint even if primary function is to stretch.

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