Temples and Sanctuaries

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Sanctuary at Delphi

Located on the Hillside at Mount Parnassus

Dephi sacred, beleived to be omphalos (centre) of the world (two eagles flew from opposite sides and met at Delphi)

Main religious purpose was the oracle, housed in the Temple of Apollo

Surrounded by parabolos wall

Sacred way led from the entrance up to the Temple. No propylon entrance

Located near Kastalian spring, pilgramers would wash here before entering sanctuary

Pan-hellenic featuring many treauries - Sikonians, Siphnians, Thebans, Knidians, Megarians, Athenians, Boetians

Had a stoa for the Athenians and a Lesche (clubhouse for the Knidians) atop the hill

Festival facilities - Stadium, Theatre and Hippodrome.

Votive offerings included: Kleobis and Biton. Delphic Charioteer and Tripod of Plataea

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Temple of Apollo - Delphi

c370BC-323BC

Doric order

Replaced a temple constructed in the 6th Century BC

Colonnade 6x15 (not golden ration) (y=2x+1) Probably to accomodate for the adyton where the oracle was housed

Stylobate 21.6m x 58.2m

Made of Corinthian limestone

Altar directly outside

Hexastyle prostyle

Distyle in antis (pronaos and opisthodomos)

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Buildings at Sanctuary at Olympia

Temple of Hera - c600BC. Located in the altis. Hexastyle. Housed cult statue

Pelpion - In altis, upgraded in 5th Century

Philippeion - In altis. Built by Philip II Macedonia c330BC. Finished by Alexander the Great. Held statues of Philip's family. 18 ionic columns, Circular

Prytaneion - In altis.5th Century BC. Held celabratory dinners during Olympic games.Champions and priests would stay here

Bouleterion - Southern part of sanctuary, Where the judges stayed and where athletes swear the Olympian oath

Leonidaion - South west of the altis. Funded by Leonidas of Naxos. Roman. Hotel for Roman dignitaries. 44 columns surround by a colonnade of 138 ionic columns

Echo Colonnade - opposite temple of Zeus. C350BC, 97.8m x 9.1m

Treasuries - At foot of Mt Kronos. 6-5th Century. Embassies of Greek states, storing votives in the Pan Hellenic Sanctuary

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Festival Facilities

Altar - constructed from the ash of all previous sacrifices. In the centre of the altis

Stadium - Moved three times as the sanctuary was expanded. Accessed through a stone tunnel. Set the length of an Olympic stade at 192.7m

Hippodrome - took final form during Classical period after the flood of Alpheios washed it away. 780m long

Palaestra - Directly south of gymnasion. 3rd Century BC. 66.3m x 66.7m. A colonnade of Doric columns surrounded by a peristyle

Gymnasion. North West of the Sanctury. 120m x 2220m. 2nd Century BC

Votive Offerings - Miltiades helmet from Marathon. Nike by Paionios

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Temple of Zeus - Olympia

c470-457Bc

Doric order

6x13 colonnade (golden ratio)

Hexastyle prostyle

Distyle in antis

Architect was Libon of Elis

18.8m x 64.1m

Shell limestone

Housed the 12.3m hight chryselephantine statue of Zeus

Ramp on the East Side leading to the entrance

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Propylaia - The Acropolis

Grand entrance way to the Athenian sanctury

Began in 438BC

Designed by Mnesikles 

Left incomplete due to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War

Fronted by 6 doric columns

Impression of symmetry from front. But it is deceiving

6 ionic columns in the central passage

Intercolumination is not consistant. The middle door is wider to bring animals through during the Panethenaia

Piankotheke acted as a dining room, but had many paintings inside

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Temple of Athena Nike - Acropolis

c420BC

Tetrastyle 

Amphiprostyle. columns only on the front and back

Built on the bastion next to the Propylaia

Ionic columns which contrasted the doric order of the propylaia

Naos 5x5m

Two pillars in antis.

Very small pronaos and non existent pteroma 

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Erecthium - Acropolis

c421-405BC

East side looked likea conventional temple being hexastyle

North side (facing away from Parthenon) have very long columns in comparison to the rest of the building. Continuity

South side facing towards the the acropolis had the porch with six karyatids

The south side was blank so as not to compete with the grandeur of the Parthenon

Pentelic marble

Bands of leaf and dart, egg and tongue and lotus and palmette anthemion

Three stepped architrave

Housed statue of Athene to which the peplos was given

Also housed the olive tree and sacred spring from the Athene and Poseidon contest

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Sanctuary of Artemis Braunion

Had its own altar and stoa

Named after the sanctuary of Artemis in the Athenian colony of Braunion

Situated right of the propylaia

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Ihalkotheke - Acropolis

Had its own propylon and parabolos wall

An armoury

Contained suits of hoplite armour which were dedicated to Athena during the Panathenaic Festival

Products of the manufacturing industry, protected by Athene Ergane, also stored there

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The Parthenon - Acropolis

c447-432BC

Temple of Athena Parthenos. Designed by Iktinos and kallikrates

8x17 colonnade (golden ratio)

Doric-ionic order Octostyle prostyle - Hexastyle prostyle

Pentelic marble

92 decorated metopes. Frieze

Made pteroma narrower for a larger naos

Housed statue of Athena Parthenos (11.5m tall)

4 columns in the opisthodomos (potentially a treasury)

Extra steps (risers) added between stylobate and stereobate because they were so high

Votives: Peplos kore, Kore 675, Kritios Boy, Blond boy

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Temple of Hephaestus - The Agora - Athens

c450BC

Dedicated to Hephaestus, god of metalworking

Located in the agora (market), metalworkers district

6x13 colonnade. 13.7m x 31.8m

Pentelic marble

Housed statues to Hephaestus and Athena

Hexastyle prostyle

Distyle in antis

Doric order

Only 18of the metopes sculpted.10 on the east side depict Labours of Heracles. 4 easternmost on the north and south side showed Labours of Theseus 

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Temple of Apollo Epicurius - Bassae

429-400BC

Iktinos was Architect

Temple faced north so a door was added to the east side

Limestone

6x15 colonnade (no golden ratio)

14.5m  38.3m

Doric columns on the exterior. Ionic on the interior. One central corinthian column in the naos

Pronaos deeper than opisthodomos, no symetriae

Freize inside naos faced inwards, depicts Amazonomachy and Centauromachy

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Temple of Athene Aphaia - Aegina

c490BC

Replacement for the first temple which burned down in 510BC

6x12 colonnade (no golden ratio)

Hexastyle prostyle Distyle in antis Pentrastyle peristyle in the naos

Symmetria between columns

Intercolumination wider on the east and west side

Pronaos larger than opisthodomos. Door between opisthodomos and naos. Unusual

Triglyph problem (where triglyphs don't line up with columns)

Doric columns

Made of Limestone. However there was a marble roof

Acroterions on the apexs of the pediments.(Sphinxes on corners. Palmette and madiens ontop)

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