Temple of Hera at Olympia
Date: Early 6th century
1. One of the earliest peripteral temples.
2. Columns origionally made of wood - replaced over time with stone & mud-brick walls
3. Spur walls in the naos- presumably to hold up the roof.
4. Very archaic proporions. Long and thin and low (squat).
5. Decoration - large terracotta disc (an acroterion).
Temple of Hera at Paestum
Date: Mid 6th century
1. Odd proportions. Very wide for length (9x18)
2. Single row of columns down the middle of naos - odd. 2 doorways - odd.
3. Central row to hold up the roof? Or divide into 2 halfs for 2 statues?
4. Capitals of colums unusual. Undersides of echinus had carved pattern. Unusual decorative dimension for plain Doric order.
5. Columns have pronounced entasis - archaic trait.
Temple of Athena at Paestum
Date: Late 6th century
1. Mainly Doric with Ionic features - Ionic columns in pronaos. First hybrid temple (known).
2. Above and below metopes & trighlyphs runs a band of painted terracotta moulding - unusual and decorative for normal Doric.
3. Odd cornices; no horizontal & slanting cornices very deep and contained elaborate coffering (more decorative).
Second Temple of Hera at Paestum
Date: Mid 5th century
1. Conventional. Appears heavily influenced by temples of mainland Greece - no unusual features of other Paestum Temples.
2. Transitional Temple. Archaic - Classical. Stylobate slightly cambered, columns lean inwards to counter impression of sagging. (Classical Techniques).
Temple of Aphaia at Aigina
Date: Late 6th Century.
Sits in a Sanctuary dedicated to the Godess of Fire.
Transitional Temple: 2 Pediments: Archaic - Classical.
West Pediment: 2nd Trojan War - Archaic
Sculptures: Archaic Smile. Stiff, frontal poses.
East Pediment: 1st Trojan War - Classical
Sculptures: More realistic depiction of death; greater sense of naturally falling body. Face is more natural and effective; matches images of death. Less frontal, dynamism.
Herakles: More emotive face - appropriate for battle. More muscle definition and realism. More elaborate clothing and armour. Leg shows strain of holding bow and arrow.
Temple of Zeus
Date: First half of 5th century (Early Classical)
Materials: Marble tiles + local stone.
When built it was the biggest Temple in Mainland Greece.
Cult Statue of Zeus by Phideas:
Chryselephantine: gold and ivory over marble.
Very detailed: embroided figures on robe.
Has a pool filled with olive oil to create a pleasing play of light and shadows - reflective.
Holding Victory (Olympics reference) and Eagle Sceptre (power and authority).
Temple of Zeus Pediments
East: Chariot race between Oenomaus and Pelops
Looks out towards the Hippodrome (Chariot Racing Arena)
Very stationary. Contrast of old and young (shows of talent). Done by difference of musculature (appropriate for age). Seer: shows psychological drama.
Looks out towards Palaestra. (Wrestling Arena)
Perithous: In pose of one of Tyrannicides (inspiration).
An analogy of Persian War. Persian's barbaric and animalistic. Greeks (Lapiths) civilised.
Good dramatic action shots with overlapping limbs - typical battle scene.
Physical interaction: shows action and movement - suitable for battle field.
Temple of Zeus Metopes
12 Labours of Hercules (Internal)
Not a continuous narrative so can be broken up.
Shows Hercules development throughout (starting strong and becoming weary).
Humanised version of Hercules (weariness at holding up the world).
Intersecting diagonal lines.
- Inspires athletes to overcome challenges. Fits in with representation of victory.
- Celebrates physical prowess.
- Achieves fame and immortality - links with good athletes gaining status - remembered.
- First time labours were cannonised (made official).
Date: Mid 5th century
A Doric Temple with Ionic features.
Octostyle: broader than usual.
No alter: more a monument to Athenian greatness that centre of religious worship.
4 Ionic Columns in adytum and Ionic frieze.
Cult statue of Athena by Phideas:
Would have been a pool of water in front to play with light; good visual effects.
Holding Nike (Victory).
Gigantomachy inside shield, amazonmachy outside.
Date: Mid 5th century
92 carved metopes of varying quality.
Varying depths of relief: some limbs completely in the round, some partially protrude.
Sculptural style simiar to Temple of Zeus.
Can detect new styalistic techniques as temple progressed e.g softness of facial features & fluidity of drapery.
South side: Centaurs VS Lapiths
1. Squashed drapery converys the crushing of the Lapiths. Centaur is full od humane sympathy.
2. Male body is spread out for admiration: limp in death. Centuar wearing bestial mask.
Great variation of centaurs makes the Lapiths look blandly uniform.
All metaphors for Greeks victory over Persians, show struggle for victory/good.
Date: Mid 5th century
High classical style. Relief sculpture. Uniformly high quality.
Large variety in figures.
Depicts festival of Panathenaia - Festival of Athena
A big procession leading up the climantic scene on the East side. (Folding up of Athena's peplos or human sacrifice).
Either side the Gods face away from the scene. Larger than humans. (Same height sitting down)
The direction of travel follows the procession.
High classical style
West Pediment: Athena VS Poseidon for patronage
River God: good muscle definition, in proportion. Drapery a nice contrast to muscles.
Iris(?) Good drapery; clings to limbs and highly rated.
East Pediment: Birth of Athena
3 Goddesses: Good variety of drapery; motion lines and transparency effect. Displays 3 dimensionality of legs. Shows body definition.
Date: Late 5th Century
Dedicated to many people; not just gods.Tomb of Cecrops & Pandrous
More religious than Parthenon.
Ionic colums: elaborate base, carving & volute. More elaborate decoration (Super Ionic).
Has different floors/levels: built on sloping land, built around trident mark & olive tree. Assymetrical layout.
A hole in the ceiling above trident mark; maybe for light to shine down or visual reminder of Posiedon putting trident down.
Erectheum Caryatids and Frieze
Caryatids: Priestess' holding out offerings (to Athena)
Connects sacred spots to Athena:
- Look over Old Temple of Athena (war memorial from Persian War)
- Face the Parthenon
Drapery (transparency effect) & contrapposto make them appear more natural and realistic. Believable - like they really are holding up the roof.
More exciting than columns, fit in with assymetric style.
No known function - perhaps a viewing platform to watch Festival of Athena.
Not marble but Eleusis Limestone (darker). Figures carved seperately in marble and attatched seperately in marble. Stand out! - Unusual.
Date: Mid 5th Century
Not a Temple!
No sculptural decoration:
- To not overshadow other temples
- Not a temple dedicated to anyone
- Differentiate its function
Marble: Pentelic Marble
Colums: Doric (similar to Parthenon) and Ionic (less elaborate than Erectheum). Blends well.
Ceiling: Constructed from large blocks of marble with rods to reinforce. Novel technique.
Had 5 lockable doors.
Doric hexastyle enterence. Larger gaps between columns to allow room for cattle.
Propylaia Wings and Effectiveness
- Increase size and grandure. Add drama
- Assymetrical, south wing cut for Temple of Nike.
- North wing: drama.
- Wide ramp for Panthanaic Procession. Increases sense of height.
East Porch: Can see Erectheum, statue of Athena Promachos, Parthenon, Old Temple ruins.
- On the same axis as Parthenon; creates visual link between them. Parthenon looms above, appearing to be on a higher storey.
- Can see Salamas in the distance - sight of great naval victory over Persians.
- From Eastern end, 3 quater view of Parthenon is superb - all sculptural features visible. Rise above viewer in spectacular fashion.
- Doric/Ionic mix matches scheme of the Parthenon.
Temple of Athena Nike
Date: Late 5th century
Material: Pentelic marble
4 Prostyle columns at each end.
Proportions slightly heavy for Ionic; perhaps so it didn't clash with Doric Propylaia too much.
Naos contained cult statue of Nike.
- North & South:Greeks defeating Persians.
- East: Depictions of various gods.
- West: Depictions of various gods.
Depictions are historical rather than mythological - unusual
Temple of Athena Nike - Parapet sculpture
Has a paparet - ancient health and safety. Outside was exquisitely carved.
Relief sculpture; figures of Nike.
A seated Athena on each of the 3 sides.
Clinging drapery style very good. Transparency effect.
Dramatic action shots; swirling drapery makes it look alive and full of action.
Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassae
Date: Late 5th century (c.430-400)
In the middle of nowhere (Arcadia), less money for Temple.
Blends Doric, Ionic and Corinthian & Arachaic and revolutionary techniques.
Archaic: Elongated proportions & distance between widths.
Doric: Columns on the outside. Hexastyle, peristyle, symmetrical & plain capitals.
Ionic: Engaged columns. Capitals are scrolls. Internal frieze.
Corinthian: Column replaces cult statue. Most elaborate - floral decor
Temple of Apollo Epikourios at Bassae Frieze
1. Heracles takes belt from Amazon Queen
2, Amazonmachy: drapery full of swirling patterns
- Figures don't fit easily into space. Not well proportioned. Crudely done.
- Too heavy, not graceful or delicate. Unsophisticated - not enough money
- Dynamic action shots show drama -very chaotic & exciting
- Revolutionary dynamism. A truer war scene - not looking their best.
4. Apollo shooting bow from chariot (Maybe placed above door)
5. Amazonmachy: Good detail, uncomfortable positions, harsh, rugged look matches mountain, not interior.
Interior: May have been dark and gloomy; maybe lamps to allow play of light and shadow for the frieze. Puts emphasise on action/battle scenes.
Tholos at Epidauras
Date: Middle of 4th Century
Materials: Primarily Limestone with some marble carvings. Floor: Black and White marble.
Activities of the cult of hero Asklepios took place (god of medicine, son of Apollo)
A labyrinth under the flood (maybe a representation of Underworld)
- The ceiling was coffered & contained sculptural decoration.
- Had a conical roof with acroterion (floral decoration)
- A ramp led to the enterence
- Walls of cella covered with layer of stucco & displayed frescos
Blend of Corinthian and Doric Order
Doric: 26 on outer columnnades - peristyle
Corinthian: Inner columnade of 14 with dainty capitals.
Carving elaborate and highly admired, had a high reputation.
Philippeion at Olympia
Date: Mid/Late 4th Century (340-335)
Materials: Marble (columns) & Limestone (top cella wall). Stucco painted, look like brick wall
Holds statues of Macedonian royal family (erected by King Philip II after victoty at Cheronea). Statues chryselephantine, normally used for gods: New.
A political statement - claiming they were proper Greeks.
Mainly Ionic (looks modern in generally Doric Olympia): 18 columns around porch.
Inner wall of cella had engaged Corinthian columns: no structural function, decoration.
Conical roof had bronze poppy head.
Grave monument of Hegaso
She is defined as the wife of a man.
- Very tall - suggests importance (like gods)
- Has a fancier dress than maid and elaborate hair
- Inspecting an ornament from box
- Simple clothed head
- Holding open a jewellery box
Good drapery: transparency effect.
Private scene of an individual, not to be displayed to public.
Grave monument of Dexileos
Date: c. 394/3
Material: Pentelic marble (expensive - he was honoured)
Shown as he was in life; died in battle against the Corinthians. Dramatic action shot - a heroic depiction.
Good drapery: motion lines, makes him appear impressive. High quality.
Influential design (like frieze on Parthenon- horseback) , until then hadn't been used for private art.
Nudity of victim shows vulnerability and heroic image (a worthy opponent)
Only grave monument that gives date of birth - perhaps to show he was too young to play a part in the revolutions.
The Ilissos Stele
Date: 350 - 325
- Other people unaware of him
- Nude and quite musculature, naturalistic and delicate
- Staring unnervingly at the viewer, compels us to look back.
- Sniffing for master (mourning)
Slave: Mourning, crying.
Shows 3 ways of expressing grief.
Deep relief (almost in the round)